Cluster #3 Asia/Pacific
A Response To Globalization in Higher Education
Gadjah Mada University
How Indonesian Perceive Globalization in Higher Education
○Globalization is unavoidable
○Globalization brings benefits and challenges as well to higher education institutions
○The GOI believes that the improvement of quality of higher education institutions is a must to optimize the benefit of globalization
○University autonomy is a strategic way to empower higher education institutions in responding to globalization
○faculty and student mobility,
○university network and partnership,
○joint research and education
○Internationalization: standard, curricula, and language
○Quality assurance? How can we guarantee that those who come to us are the good one?
●Many service provider, including "international institutions", offer low quality of higher educational services
●Policy instruments needed to promote quality of higher educational services
○How can we increase the competitiveness of higher education institutions?
●Many higher education institutions in neighboring countries are targeting Our market
●more room of flexibility to respond changes
Why University Autonomy?
○Universities are highly regulated. The GOI has deeply intervened most aspects of university life, including academic activities
○Universities need more authorities to manage their own personnel, incomes, assets, and academic activities to improve their quality of services
○Autonomy is needed to facilitate university to reorganize its institutions and redirect its academic activities so as to respond to the very dynamic of globalization
○Autonomy is also needed to facilitate university to find alternative of sources of financing. To improve quality, universities need more money, but the ability of GOI to support its higher education inastitutions is very limited.
○Higher education is highly subsidized by the government. Parent and community contributions are needed to support higher educational institutions. Universities should have an authority to determine their costing so as to improve their quality of service
Policies On University Autonomy
○Starting with four universities, Ministry of National Education currently gives status of autonomy to seven public universities
○Being an autonomous university, a public university has the authority to manage its own internal affairs, including in opening (closing) study programs, department, and faculties; recruiting its own personnel: establishing international partnership and collaboration; and creating new sources of revenues
○Change in university governance structure: introducing board of trusty (BOT) as the highest decision makers in university management and academic senate as policy makers in academic affairs
○Involvement of community leaders, alumnae, and business communities in university governance through BOT
○Introduction of good university governance principles in Indonesian higher education system (transparency, eficiency, etc)
Impacts of university autonomy
○Cost consciousness; right sizing its institutions and personnel
○More creative in creating source of revenues; creating university-owned companies, business incubation centers
○Increased linkages between university and industries.
○Increased Parents' share in cost of education; enforcing cross subsidies from the rich to the poor (collecting money from the rich so as to provide more scholarships to the poor)
Constraints in implementing university autonomy
○Student and faculty members protest "university autonomy will create commercialization and commoditization of higher educational activities"
○University autonomy needs a new and different university culture which may in contrary with the existing university traditions and values
○Lack of consistent regulations coming from different ministries
Does University Autonomy Improve Quality of Higher Education?
○Educational and research activities become more responsive to community needs.
○More international collaborations in research and education; joint lectures, curricula, and research
○Innovation in research and teaching activities; problem-based learning, industrial-oriented research, ICT based education
○Increasing revenues to universities has encouraged them to invest more on its personnel and facilities