Cluster #1 North/South America
Globalization of Higher Education:
Implications for the SYLFF Network
Gary Jarvis, Associate Dean
Faculty of Graduate Studies
Meaning of Globalization vs Internationalization
・Terms adopted from the field world economics.
Removal of national boundaries for economic purpose.
National boundaries become porous with respect to the flow of goods, capital and people.
Relations between nations. Basic unit of community and policy remains the nation even as relations among nations become increasingly necessary and important.
Globalization & Internationalization of Education
The flow of technology, economy, knowledge, people, values and ideas across borders.
The process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into post-secondary education.
Jane Knight (2003)
Curricula which involve:
・an international subject
・an internationally comparative approach
・preparation of students for international professions
・foreign languages with training in inter-cultural skills
・more than one country
・internationally recognized professional qualifications
・joint or double degrees between countries
・compulsory study at institutions abroad
・content designed for foreign students
Center of Education Research and Innovation
Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development
Goal of Internationalization
・to produce graduates who are:
(a) multi-culturally competent
(b) able to work in diverse settings
(c) knowledgeable of the global community
・Similar to the goals of the SYLFF program
International Association of Universities (~ 650)
2003 Survey on Internationalization of Higher Education
Most Important Reasons:
- Mobility of students; Research collaboration
Fastest Growing Aspect:
- Mobility of students and teachers
- Brain drain; Loss of cultural identity (esp. language); Increased costs
Most Important Benefits:
- Student and teacher development; international research collaboration
- Lack of financial support at the institutional level
- Lack of institutional policy
Benefits of Student Mobility
・Students return home with greater understanding of host country - culture, technology, ...
・Through student mobility, universities become agents of mutual understanding and geopolitical stability.
・Students who move across national borders are disproportionately likely to become leaders in their home countries (Richard Levin, 2006 - President of Yale University).
・Today's brightest and best students will be tomorrow's leaders.
・Facilitating the appreciation of cultural diversity and the establishment of international contacts amongst these students may lead to greater tolerance and understanding amongst world leaders in the future.
Fellows Mobility Plan
・Goal: Cultural enrichment of students and closer linkages between SYLFF Institutions in different countries.
Student Mobility - Issues to Discuss
・More competition for local students (admission/scholarships)
・Brain drain/gain when foreign students remain - ethical issues
・Need to standardize admissions criteria
・Foreign branches of universities
・Recruitment of foreign students
・Enrichment of educational experience for domestic students
・Economic benefits to host country
・Reciprocal benefits in joint international projects
Bologna Process and N. America
・3-year European Bachelor's degree - a dilemma for Canadian and American graduate schools
・Previously required a 4-year degree for admission
・Gradual movement towards accepting 3-year degree as preparation for graduate study in North America
・Has raised interest in student mobility in general
・More Canadian and American students will likely study abroad in Europe due to similar degree structure
Council of Graduate Schools (North America) Survey - 2006
3-Year Degree as a Basis for Admission to Graduate Schools
|・Do not accept
|・Evaluate degree for equivalency
|・Evaluate applicant for competence
The Canadian Context
・4 out of 10 provinces have strategies for Internationalization of higher education.
・Latin America and Caribbean is the region with most international interaction.
(> 400 Exchange Agreements in the region)
・3-year European degrees are considered on a case-by-case basis at some universities, including York University.
Quebec is Most Proactive Province
・15 of 18 Quebec Universities teach in French
・75% of Quebec university students study in French
・majority of international students in Quebec are recruited from French-speaking countries.
・Tuition fees subsidized for international students
・Tax exemptions for foreign Post-Doctoral Fellows
・5 times more university students come to Quebec from France than go to France from Quebec
Quebec Bursary Program for study Abroad
・$10M/yr for Quebec university students to study abroad.
・Course credits transfer to their home degree program.
・Study period: 2 - 8 months @ $1,000/month.
・> 2500 awarded each year.
If courses failed or not completed, Bursary must be refunded (!!).
・Goals: to promote internationalization of Quebec universities and to encourage students to develop competencies and skills to succeed in an international context.