日本財団 図書館

Cluster #4 Music Schools 1:30 pm - 2:20 pm
Tim Sullivan: This session will focus on the most international language of all, music.
Gretchen Amussen: The three of us would like to highlight a couple of issues. We could talk for hours, but we decided to look at internationalization, as in student populations at The Juillard School, and the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna. I will conclude by looking at musical training on a world-wide basis, and globally, how this influences the profession, also the connection between training and professions.
Jamée Ard: Our school enrolls students from 43 countries. Juilliard president Joseph Polisi assumed office in 1984, and declared Juillard must embrace the holistic goal of urging our students to understand more than just their artistic performances. They must try to make the world a better place. An example of facilitating this view is the Morse Fellows Program in which our students go into non-traditional environments (soup kitchens, nursing homes, hospitals, shelters, etc.) and implement their own projects. In addition, students teach music to children around the world who have no previous exposure to music by giving workshops; dance students have traveled to Peru to teach dance and about dancing to people who have never studied it before; ensembles regularly tour the world; in New York City, students teach music to African American children and their parents on Saturdays.
Note: Juilliard's philosophy is presented in Joseph W. Polisi's book, The Artist as Citizen (Amadeus Press, 2005); copies were made available to all SPAM participants.
Wolfgang Klos: Globalization has been the language of music for years. Culture makes the difference between beast and human being. When Haydn went to London, he said, my language, music, is understood all over the world.
 The conservatoire of Vienna founded in 1812, has enrolled students from all over the world right from its beginning. Antonin Dvorak, Jean Sibelius, and others, studied at our school. A very special heritage and tradition was formed. Many famous composers lived for many years in Vienna.
 After WWII, the academy opened its doors internationally. We have connections to Taiwan and the Middle East, and music schools of Afghanistan and Iraq were built with our guidance. In the 1990s, partnerships in Eastern Europe started to develop; in 1995, Austria joined the EU. We are now linked to China, Southeast Asia and Thailand by several university networks. We are now there for new global development, cooperating with symphony orchestras, too. Mumbai and South America are on the top of our agenda.
 Still, most of our funding comes from the state. We have improved our international relations office, and follow a clear strategy. There are now 3,200 students, including 1,500 from 72 countries enrolled in our university, not a high number, but it is one of the biggest music universities.
 We have scientific studies, too, in sociology, therapy, sound research, and audiology. Vienna does not follow the Bologna rules, we have a 4 + 2 construction underway. Our strategy consists of 4 major points: (a) countries and partners of highest qualities, (b) cooperation with partners for mutual benefit (London, Helsinki, Mozart Festival with Osaka), and (c) joint school in Beijing, and (d) connections to institutions outside of music, e.g. business companies. Partnerships in Europe and Asia, and links in the U.S. were also outlined.
 Scholarships are given to outstanding students, including SYLFF fellowships.
Gretchen Amussen: (see Appendix 7-8) Let us look at two European initiatives − Mundus Musicalis and working group on the evolution of the music profession − to address the issue of globalization and higher education in music. Supported by the EU, these initiatives involve European as well as partners in Oceania.
 Under Mundus Musicalis, initial work has identified factors both conducive and restrictive to student mobility. Differing methods of teaching provide challenges to students; the music profession has "taken the bull by the horns" by looking at this and addressing it.
 The working group on the evolution of the music profession involves all 27 EU countries. The WG is asking, are there new competencies which people need to develop, e.g. forms of music making that are disappearing? What are the issues for musicians? One issue that has emerged is related to technology which has a very profound impact on music and musicians, i.e. the way music is being delivered and received. Another issue is multiculturalism − Jamée was speaking about world issues in your backyard − the question becomes, how does the classically trained musician come into this? What are the changing attitudes of audiences? What are the changing careers of the musician? How does the conservatoire respond to this?
Q: (Jan Persens) What about projects in Africa?
A: (Gretchen Amussen) We have had a couple in Africa, leading to two people coming for a year, both of them choral conductors. Conservatoire training in Mali is new, based on what students call the invent-share concept. In Morocco, Fez, there is a project linking the architecture between old Fez and young people of the city.
Q: (Tim Sullivan) The music people are suggesting that they have taken steps to make the world a better place − to let music reach out over the arts in general. There are relationships with other places doing the same thing, and creating other places where this is done.
A: (Jamée Ard) A danger is cultural arrogance. We represent well-known, historic institutions but we have the ultimate message, something nobody else has. In Latin America a group of musicians have gotten together to look at their historical instruments, working with contemporary composers. In this respect, it is a quite new concept; it is not just that we reach out to the poor.
A: (Wolfgang Klos) We are like permanent exporters of culture, 3,200 students of whom 1,500 from abroad. We also have projects in Cuba and Venezuela, and new influences are brought to us. One student is studying indigenous music in Taiwan.
A: (Tim Sullivan) The first Africa/Europe SYLFF Regional Forum ended with a concert held in the Anglican church in Cairo since a pipe organ was needed. So we rented the Anglican Cathedral, the concert was funded by a Japanese foundation, hosted by the American University in Cairo, and the musicians were from a number of countries. Everyone understood their language, the most international of all. This event was globalization at its best.
Cluster #5 Business Schools 2:20 pm 〜 3:10 pm
Jerry Sheehan: This is the second functional cluster. All business schools recognize that there is no domestic aspect in business.
Deirdre Mendez: What does it mean to be a global business school? Most students must have a couple of years of work experience before being admitted to our school of business. We do not have them for very long, they need to get back to their jobs, so it can be difficult for them to go abroad.
 Competition among business schools and students is intense. For business schools, the publication of rankings is taken seriously. Students compete with each other; teams of students compete too. Everything is competitive.
 Our curriculum is narrowly defined; in fact, it looks like an engineering curriculum. Under these circumstances, it is always difficult to let students go abroad, international work is made difficult. Twenty percent (20%) of students do "something" overseas, perhaps a 5-week "bubble trip" where they are taught together in English, and this qualifies as international experience. Many students could not study abroad otherwise.
 The school I work for is among the two largest in the U.S. (depending on what year you consider) and is quite parochial. The effect of globalization has been good for the University. Austin is located in the green part of the state. For in-state students, it is probably the greenest where they have ever lived, and they consider it a liberal place, thus it makes it difficult to make them leave. We have to be more aggressive in our efforts, creative, in order to get students to go abroad.
 We have a double degree program; students earn degrees from both our university and our partner universities, but it is difficult to motivate students except through a large fellowship. The SYLFF fund motivates us to enter into partnership with other institutions.
Patricia Murphy: (see Appendix 7-9) Globalization at the Haas School of Business encompasses international graduate students (c. 30% of MBA students, 37.5% of Ph.D. students), exchange programs (with collaboration with United Nations International Development Organization; Chinese research center; School of Management, St. Petersburg State University; Japanese Training Program; Global Social Venture Competition; eTQM College in Dubai), and visiting researchers and scholars (in 2006-2007 The Institute of Management, Innovation & Organization is sponsoring 29 scholars from 10 countries)
 In the 1990s competition was emphasized; We now work to enhance and develop policies to help other people.
Jerry Sheehan: The "eTQM" may not be known. We did not talk about languages in the globalization process, we should do this later.
Helen Henderson: (refer to Appendix 7-10) INSEAD is an international school based on a different model. We have two full-fledged campuses, one in France and the other in Singapore, within each students can swap and switch, but this creates many logistic problems.
 Regarding our MBA program, 900 students are enrolled at two campuses. No nationality comprises more than 14% of the total enrollment; India and France have reached this limit. The program is intensive and thus makes it difficult for students to go abroad. Since our Singapore campus was established, 25% of our students are Asian students, but not necessarily limited to Singapore. The student body is truly international.
 These days there are many different MBAs available, full-time, part-time, etc. There has been a 53% increase in business schools in India alone. There is more choice, so it is a question of attracting the best students. As mentioned earlier, the competition is intense. The other question is to recruit good faculty, to get good people to come and not just fly in and leave after their lecture.
 Business schools can maintain their enrollments if they increase the international element. Students are not competing for funding; they ask, what can you offer me?
 The SYLFF Program fits our school by helping to show what a perpetual endowment means. There is plenty of scope for inspiration. There is an increased need for schools to offer scholarships.
Philip Yetton: The Australian Graduate School of Management is very sensitive to market demands for our best students. At least 50% of them go overseas during the course of their academic program; they go because they want to go. How do we manage their mobility? Tuition fees are swapped as it were; if one student comes to our school and we send one to his/her school, this evens out fees.
 There is no single global university. Only in the U.S. do universities compete with each other. It is quite interesting to see how we treat those that we serve; we are shifting from teaching to learning. Most universities deliver something to students, i.e. teaching. But this is not learning; we must allow students to learn. If you look at the way young people interact, by SMS and the like − this is also the way they learn. It is a high fixed-cost world, but a low-cost variable world. You could perhaps get 600 people into a lecture theatre, but this is nothing compared to 250,000.
 The institutions we live in are moving slowly, slower than prisons and mental hospitals in Australia! If we do not try and imagine what is needed, someone will come and imagine it for us. e-Learning is the future. Future students will do everything in front of the screen, just clicking and making friends all over the world. The future holds possibilities for universities where large numbers of students roll through, citizens of the world. SYLFF can build a global network, linking platforms as put forward by Prof. Tokuda.
A: (Patricia Murphy) Students are already doing e-learning, but students would not wish for this, they want the personal contact. Why else study?
Q: (Jerry Sheehan) In the e-learning world it is easy to be the observer, but not to be the participant. I would like to emphasize the spectator/participant opposition.
Q: (Ersin Onulduran) Regarding the preparation of business school graduates. I read an article that said recent graduates from business schools, such as the University of Pittsburgh, with 12-month graduate programs, looked back and felt less well prepared. If your courses are based mainly on e-learning, does that prepare them better or not?
A: (Jan Persens) In Malmö we saw how you can provide something international for students who cannot travel. Every month we announce a program for e-learning. During an interview with a student, she said that she liked being by herself − nobody would laugh at her because of something she said in class. I thought this was a very interesting comment.
A: (Helen Henderson) We have a one-year program which we find successful. You need to admit students who can absorp a lot of material quickly. The two-year program is a U.S. model. It is a question of life-long learning − you give them something to start with, and to continue learning from this. Employment is no problem at all.
A: (Patricia Murphy) Business is very interactive. You cannot lock yourself into a situation, you need to interact.
A: (Philip Yetton) If you could only have small groups with fantastic professors, it would all be very well. I went to a small university, but how would you do this now? Companies spend a lot of money having their managers trained. What we see now is that customers of firms must do a lot of the work through SMS and mobile telephones, etc. The same applies to student work; they will do a lot for themselves.
 We will never return to universities as they were from 1750 to 1950; we will not return to using chalk for writing on a blackboard. "Learning by doing" will be much more important in the future. This will be the platform for the future.
A: (Deirdre Mendez) Business school students must have an international basis because of the intense competition. It is easy to lose humanistic questions in the competitive world. It may be easy for a company to set-up a facility and pollute somebody's water, because there is no control but is it ethical? One U.S. student who had just returned from abroad told me about the amount of corruption he observed, e.g. having to pay just to get a necessary stamp in your passport. In addition to this, sending students abroad, we see them having important experiences.
Jerry Sheehan: Being on your own, being yourself may not be the very best way. If you deal with students electronically, you may not get to the point where you walk away feeling you have achieved something. We heard Egla Martinez-Salazar saying many things that were difficult − seeing the person forces you to address the subject, to change yourself. To me this is what SYLFF is all about. I appreciate the comments; we have much to think about when we return home.
Tim Sullivan: It's a good thing that we had some "fire" at the end of the day from the audience. The first question I wrote down before hearing Philip was, should SYLFF help facilitate an e-network among fellows? You might learn a lot about music from the web, but there is nothing like being with a master musician teaching you to play, in person.
 Since 9/11, my university (in Cairo) has been approached by a lot of people asking if we could do something together. We created something called dialogue courses with the University of Washington, Seattle. What really makes it work are video conferences, the interaction is needed. We put the students together in the summer in Cyprus. A large network built-up among fellows was mentioned. For some institutions this would be impossible because they do not have the funds; somebody else would have to do this.
 Looking back on the past 20 years, SYLFF has been a success. Business schools seek to make their students rich in the end, music schools try to make their students enrich the world. The speakers were telling us a lot about what they do at their schools.
 Questions which come to mind are: Should SYLFF facilitate an e-network? How can SYLFF serve as a model vis-à-vis internationalization of higher education? Hew can SYLFF fellows help internationalize their institutions? How can we share best practice among SYLFF institutions and with non-SYLFF institutions? How can SYLFF help stimulate beneficial partnerships among SYLFF institutions?
Tim Sullivan: (Refer to Appendix 7-11) I am now going to turn to the questionnaire which we asked all participants to complete earlier this week. When Jerry Sheehan and I drew it up, we did not think of the collation of the responses. This was done yesterday by the Scholarship Division while we were in Sweden (see Appendix 7-12 for a summary of the responses)
 Let me attempt to share salient responses to the questionnaire:
● The need for more funding for various expenditures (mentioned by participants from institutions in Africa, Asia, Pacific region and North America)
● Importance of standards and quality control
● With regards to the effects of globalization, generally positive and viewed more as presenting possibilities rather than as a threat; globalization could prove a promise for the future and could facilitate collaborative research, a more cosmopolitan outlook on life and heightened respect for other cultures
● Globalization has changed the environment we operate in which has become more competitive
● The significant role of language, not mentioned in the presentations and discussion with the floor.
Jerry Sheehan: Let me share some of my observations. Today's discussions showed tension, creative tension, regarding the question of educating the many or educating the few. About the questionnaire, globalization is viewed as having both positive and negative effects. Globalization and higher education are valuable together. How do we react to profit-making in education? What does studying abroad mean? Lastly I would like to note that most respondents said that SYLFF has had a major impact on the work. Thank you for your attention today.