CHAPTER 1: APPLICATION AND ADMINISTRATION
These guidelines provide scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, faculties, buildings, and elements by individuals with disabilities. These requirements are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of sites, facilities, buildings, and elements to the extent required by regulations issued by Federal agencies under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
102 Provisions for Adults
The technical requirements in these guidelines are based upon adult dimensions and anthropometrics.
103 Equivalent Facilitation
Nothing in these guidelines is intended to prevent the use of designs or technologies as alternatives to those prescribed in this document, provided they provide equivalent or superior accessibility and usability.
104 Dimensional Tolerances
Dimensions that are not stated as "maximum" or "minimum" are absolute. All dimensions are subject to conventional industry tolerances.
105 Referenced Standards
105.1 General. The standards referenced in these guidelines and listed in 105.2 shall be considered part of the requirements of these guidelines to the prescribed extent of each such reference. References to standards within the technical and scoping requirements shall apply to the specific edition of the reference standard listed in 105.2. Where differences occur between provisions of these guidelines and referenced standards, the provisions of these guidelines shall apply.
105.2 Referenced Standards.
105.2.1 Power Operated Pedestrian Doors. ANSI/BHMA Al56.10-1996.
105.2.2 Power-Assist and Low-Energy Power Operated Doors. ANSI/BHMA Al56.19-1996.
105.2.3 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. ASME/ANSI A17.1-1993, (including Addenda ASME/ANSI A17.1a-1994 and ASME/ANSI A17.1b-1995)
106.1 General Terms defined in 106.5 shall have the specified meaning for purposes of this document, unless otherwise stated.
106.2 Terms Defined in Referenced Standards. Terms not defined in this section, but specifically defined in a referenced standard, shall have the specified meaning from the referenced standard, unless otherwise stated.
106.3 Undefined Terms. The meaning of terms not specifically defined in this document or in referenced standards shall be as defined by collegiate dictionaries in the sense that the context implies.
106.4 interchangeability. Words, terms and phrases used in the singular includes the plural and the plural the singular.
106.5 Defined Terms
Accessible. A site, building, facility, or portion thereof that complies with these guidelines.
Accesｓible Means of Egress. Means of egress is a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or facility to a public way. An accessible means of egress is one that provides an accessible route to an area of refuge, a horizontal exit or a public way.
Accessible Route. A continuous unobstructed path that complies with these guidelines.
Addition. An expansion, extension, or increase in the gross floor area of a building or facility.
Administrative Authority. A governmental agency that adopts or enforces regulations and guidelines for the design, construction, or alteration of buildings and facilities.
Alteration. A change to a building or facility that affects or could affect the usability of the building or facility or part thereof. Alterations include, but are not limited to, remodeling, renovation. Rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, changes or rearrangement of the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions. Normal maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, or changes to mechanical and electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility.
Area of Refuge. An area where people who are unable to use stairs may remain temporarily to await further instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.
Assembly Area. A room or space accommodating a group of individuals for recreational, educational, political, social, or amusement purposes. or for the consumption of food and drink.
Automatic Door. A door equipped with a power-operated
mechanism and controls that open and close the door automatically upon receipt
of a momentary actuating signal (see power-assisted door).
Building. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.
Characters: Letters, numbers, punctuation marks and typographic symbols.
Circulation Path. An exterior or interior way of passage from one place to another for pedestrians, including, but not limited to, walks, hallways, courtyards, stairways, and stair landings.
Closed Circuit Telephone. A telephone with a dedicated line such as a house phone, courtesy phone or phone that must be used to gain entrance to a facility.
Common Use. Interior and exterior rooms, spaces, or elements that are made available for the use of a restricted group of people such as the occupants of a homeless shelter, the occupants of an office building, or the guests of such occupants.
Controls and Operating Mechanisms. A component of an element by which the user activates, deactivates, or adjusts the element.
Cross Slope. The slope that is perpendicular to the direction of travel (see running slope).
Curb Ramp. A short ramp cutting through
a curb or built up to it.
Destination-oriented Elevator. An elevator system that provides lobby controls to select floor stops, lobby indicators designating which elevator to use and a car indicator designating the floors at which the car will stop.
Detectable Warning. A standardized surface feature built in or applied to walking surfaces or other elements to warn visually impaired people of hazards on a circulation path.
Dwelling Unit. A single unit which provides a kitchen or food preparation area, in addition to rooms and spaces for living, bathing and sleeping. Dwelling units include a single family home or a townhouse used as a transient group home; an apartment building used as a shelter, guest rooms in a hotel that provide sleeping accommodations and food preparation areas; and other similar facilities used on a transient basis. For purposes of these guidelines, use of the term dwelling unit does not imply the unit is used as a residence.
Element. An architectural or mechanical component
of a building, facility, space, or site.
Entrance. Any access point to a building or portion of a building or facility used for the purpose of entering. An entrance includes the approach walk, the vertical access leading to the entrance platform, the entrance platform itself, vestibule if provided, the entry door or gate, and the hardware of the entry door or gate.
Facility. All or any portion of buildings, structures, site improvements, complexes, equipment, roads, walks, passageways, parking lots, or other real or personal property located on a site.
Ground Floor. Any occupiable floor less
than one story above or below grade with direct access to grade. A building
or facility always has at least one ground floor and may have more
than one ground floor such as where a split level entrance has been
provided or where a building is built into a hillside.
Mezzanine. That portion of a story which
is an intermediate floor level placed within the story and having occupiable
space above and below its floor.
Marked Crossing. A crosswalk or other identified path intended for pedestrian use in crossing a vehicular way.
Occupiable. A room or enclosed space designed for human occupancy.
Pictogram: A pictorial symbol which is recognized as representing activities, facilities, or concepts.
Power-assisted Door. A door used for human passage
with a mechanism that helps to open the door, or relieves the opening resistance
of a door, upon the activation of a switch or a continued force applied to the
door itself. (See automatic door.)
Public Entrance. An entrance that is not
a service entrance.
Public Use. Interior or exterior rooms or spaces
that are made available to the general public. Public use may be provided at a
building or facility that is privately or publicly owned.
Qualified Historic Building or Facility. A building
or facility that is listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register
of Historic Places; or designated as historic under an appropriate State or local
Ramp. A walking surface which has a running
slope steeper than 1:20.
Running Slope. The slope that is parallel to
the direction of travel (see cross slope).
Self-Service Storage Facility. Real property
designed and used for the purpose of renting or leasing individual storage spaces
to customers for the purpose of storing and removing personal property on a self-service
Service Entrance. An entrance intended
primarily for delivery of goods or services.
Sign. An architectural element composed
of displayed text, symbolic, tactile or pictorial information.
Site. A parcel of land bounded by a property
line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.
Sleeping Accommodations. Rooms in which people
sleep, such as dormitory and hotel or motel guest rooms or suites.
Space. A definable area, such as a room, toilet
room, hall, assembly area, entrance, storage room, alcove, courtyard, or
Story. That portion of a building included
between the upper surface of a floor and upper surface of the floor or roof next
above. A story containing one or more mezzanines has more than one
Structural Frame. The columns and the girders,
beams, trusses and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and all
other members which are essential to the stability of the building as a whole.
Tactile. An object that can be perceived using
the sense of touch.
Technically Infeasible. With respect to an alteration
of a building or a facility, something that has little likelihood
of being accomplished because existing structural conditions would require removing
or altering a load-bearing member which is an essential part of the structural
frame, or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces, or features which are in
full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements for new construction
and which are necessary to provide accessibility.
TTY. Machinery or equipment that employs interactive
graphic (typed) communications through the transmission of coded signals across
the standard telephone network. The term TTY also refers to devices known
as text telephones and TDD's.
Transient Lodging. A building, facility,
or portion thereof, excluding inpatient medical care facilities and long
term care facilities, that contains one or more dwelling units or
sleeping accommodations. Examples of transient lodging include resorts,
group homes, hotels, motels, dormitories, homeless shelters, halfway houses and
social service lodging.
Vehicular Way. A route intended for vehicular
traffic, such as a street, driveway, or parking lot.
Walk. An exterior pathway with a prepared surface
intended for pedestrian use, including general pedestrian areas such as plazas
Wheelchair Space. Space for a single wheelchair
and its occupant.
Wheelchair Space Cluster. Locations of two or
more adjacent wheelchair spaces along with companion seating in assembly