日本財団 図書館

共通ヘッダを読みとばす


Top > 社会科学 > 社会 > 成果物情報

海洋文化・文明に関する調査報告書(英文)

 事業名 基盤整備
 団体名 東京財団政策研究所 注目度注目度5


Prior to that, the value silver coins such as the ch_in and mameitagin had been measured in terms of weight. After the minting of the nanry_nishugin, silver coins became an auxiliary to gold and the gold standard gradually took root. It is very significant that Edo Japan independently moved in the same direction as Europe, which had also adopted the gold standard.

When Japan abandoned its policy of national seclusion and opened its doors to the West in 1854, silver coins known as Mexican dollars were circulating on the seas of Asia. These Mexican dollars, which were exchanged with Japanese silver on the basis of weight, were also referred to as _Western silver_ by the Japanese. When Japan_s ports were opened to foreign trade, the parity of gold and silver in the domestic market was 1 of gold to 5_10 of silver, as compared to a parity of 1:15 in the international market. At Japan_s newly opened ports, therefore, foreign traders were able to obtain gold using silver, which was scarcer in terms of gold than on the international market, returning overseas with vast amounts of Japanese gold money.

In addition to adjusting the parity of gold and silver to the international standard, Japan established a new money system replacing the standard 1-ry_gold coin with the 1-yen gold coin. Unlike the Chinese, the Japanese people did not use _Western silver_ within their borders, confining its circulation to the ports opened to foreign trade. With the enactment of the Shinka J_ei (New currency regulation) by the Japanese government in 1871, Japan adopted a gold standard and issued a 1-yen silver coin, which was mainly used for trade payments. This meant that Japan adopted a multiple-standard system in which it used a gold standard internally and a silver standard externally. The 1-yen silver coin used for trading payments imitated the shape of the Mexican dollar used as the international currency in the China Sea region. A total of 165,000,000 yen_s worth of silver yen were issued until minting was terminated in 1897. The silver yen drove out the Mexican dollars not only at the foreign trade ports in Japan but also from the seas of Asia. Within about 30 years from the opening of Japan_s ports, the silver yen thus came to dominate the markets of East Asia and Southeast Asia.

 

Separation of Ownership and Management Earlier than in the West

The Bankruptcy of Marx_s Theory of Economic Development

The 20th century saw an ongoing conflict between the market economics of capitalism and the planned economics of socialism, but by the end of the century the former had prevailed.

In March 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the former Soviet Union amended the law on the right of ownership, abolishing state ownership of the means of production and opening the way to private ownership in the name of ownership by the people. Socialism was thus officially repudiated. In the words of the Communist Manifesto: _The theory of communism can be expressed in one phrase: the abolition of private ownership._When private ownership was restored, therefore, socialism collapsed both in name and reality.

Although they have been torn asunder, the former Soviet Union and countries of Eastern Europe have been promoting economic development based on the recognition of private ownership. In 1992, even China announced to the world that it had become a _socialist market economy._ It seems that we are witnessing a reversion from socialism to capitalism, which is impossible according to traditional Marxist historicist theory. However, capitalism was never established in the old socialist bloc in the first place. In these countries, the road to capitalism is a new experiment, and it is already very clear from the social chaos and economic slump in Russia that it is a very thorny path. As well as showing the bankruptcy of Marxist historicism, this series of events highlights another related problem: the question of whether the system of private ownership, which is said to be the golden rule of capitalist society, is actually a necessary condition for capitalistic economic development.

 

 

 

BACK   CONTENTS   NEXT

 






サイトに関するご意見・ご質問・お問合せ   サイトマップ   個人情報保護

日本財団会長笹川陽平ブログはこちら



ランキング
注目度とは?
成果物アクセスランキング
1,508位
(32,645成果物中)

成果物アクセス数
6,188

集計期間:成果物公開〜現在
更新日: 2020年10月24日

関連する他の成果物

1.「SYLFF WORKING PAPERS NO.15」ビデオ (http://www.princeton.edu/duke)
2.東京財団1999年度年次報告書(和文)
3.東京財団1999年年次報告書(英文)
4.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第1回オープニングセッション?
5.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第2回世界の人々のアイデンティティ作りに役立つマンガ・アニメ?
6.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第3回マンガ・アニメ産業の存立基盤はSOHOにあり?
7.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第4回日本製マンガ・アニメが高い価値で世界市場で流通し日本にとっての収益源となるために、いま何が必要か?
8.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第5回マンガ・アニメで県づくり。新パラダイスは地方からスタートする?
9.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第6回日本製マンガ・アニメが更に発展するには何が必要か?
10.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第7回文化のローカライゼーション?
11.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第8回マンガ・アニメで県づくり。新パラダイムは地方からスタートする?
12.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第9回キャラクタービジネスのパースペクティブ?
13.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第11回ポップカルチャーが作る新しい勢力図?
14.世界都市東京フォーラム「技術からの考案」会議録
15.世界都市東京フォーラム「歴史と文化からの考案」会議録
16.「日米韓安全保障協力:平時と有事の想定」
17.「米中両国にとっての朝鮮半島?日本の対朝鮮半島政策への含意」
18.Japan’s New Middle Eastern Policy
19.Policy Analysis Review
20.英文冊子 Intellectual Cabinet 2000
21.「国会におけるODA基本法の論議と地方自治体による援助の重要性」
22.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.18 「日本の外交安全保障戦略を考える」
23.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.19 「NPO法施行後の現状と課題」
24.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.23 「ビジネスモデルを通じた産業のダイナミズム」
25.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.26 「国民参加型外交の可能性と課題」
26.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.27 「これからの朝鮮半島の行方」
27.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.28 「マスコミによる経済事象の選択と報道」
28.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.29 「陳水扁新政権下の台湾政治」
29.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.30 「朝鮮半島の将来に日本が貢献できること」
30.「政策シリーズ」第18号「霞ヶ関1府12省体制は行革の決定通り進んでいるか?」
31.「政策シリーズ」第20号「金融監督政策の方向性について」
32.「政策シリーズ」第21号「COP6に向けた我が国の取り組み」
33.平成11年度里親研修会テキスト
  [ 同じカテゴリの成果物 ]


アンケートにご協力
御願いします

この成果物は
お役に立ちましたか?


とても役に立った
まあまあ
普通
いまいち
全く役に立たなかった


この成果物をどのような
目的でご覧になりましたか?


レポート等の作成の
参考資料として
研究の一助として
関係者として参照した
興味があったので
間違って辿り着いただけ


ご意見・ご感想

ここで入力されたご質問・資料請求には、ご回答できません。






その他・お問い合わせ
ご質問は こちら から