日本財団 図書館

共通ヘッダを読みとばす


Top > 社会科学 > 社会 > 成果物情報

海洋文化・文明に関する調査報告書(英文)

 事業名 基盤整備
 団体名 東京財団政策研究所 注目度注目度5


Clearly the landscape of early modern Edo society had captured the heart of this proud Victorian woman. Isabella Bird, incidentally, traveled all around the world until she was 70, at a time when it was still practically unheard of for a woman to travel simply for the adventure of it. She visited not only Japan but also America, Hawaii, Malaya, the Red Sea, the Black Sea, Korea, China, and Morocco and was eminently qualified to comment on Japan_s beauty relative to that of other parts of the world. The Japanese, however, were unable to compare their own society with that of other countries, having been prohibited from traveling overseas during most of the Edo period. Fukuzawa Yukichi (1834-1901), on the other hand, after taking the time to appraise his own country in relation to others, became a convert to the system of power politics exemplified by the slogan_Enrich the country, strengthen the military;_ advocating that Japan turn its back on the institutions of early modern Edo society_which he referred to as _the ancestral enemy__and devote itself to _catching up with Western civilization._ (See Bunmei-ron no gairyaku [An Outline of a Theory of Civilization], 1875.) By grafting the capital-intensive production revolution of the West onto the labor-intensive production revolution accomplished during the early modern era, Meiji Japan, Asia_s first modern state, was able to hold its own against the great Western powers.

Let us pause here to consider once again the difference between the early modern and modern ages. The Europe that Japan encountered around the time of the Meiji Restoration of 1868 was indisputably _modern,_ with countries that were both rich and militarily strong. Its wealth was generated by capitalism, and its military strength owed much to the system of conscription instituted by Napoleon. Until Napoleon_s time, wars had been fought primarily by mercenaries, who were inclined to flee if the tide turned against them. Napoleon_s conscription system, in which people were expected to fight for their own country, was a concrete embodiment of the concept of the modern nation-state. Japan_s adoption of this system during the early Meiji era was a crucial event symbolizing the end of Edo society. For Europe, which had sanctioned the right of belligerency since the seventeenth century, the modern age was merely an extension of the early modern era where military matters were concerned. But the situation was different for the Japanese, whose weapon of choice, the sword, had primarily a spiritual significance, symbolizing _the soul of the warrior._ For Japan, the dawn of the modern age meant, in military terms, a clean break with the early modern era. As mentioned above, Europe crossed the line dividing the early modern and modern eras sometime around the year 1800. In terms of relations with other regions, the early modern era can be regarded as an age of transition, during which Europe and Japan asserted their independence from the old civilizations of Eurasia and began to take their place as major centers of civilization. The completion of this de-Asianization process signaled the end of the early modern era and the beginning of the modern age.

 

Seeking a Synthesis

Contemporary society, as we know, is beset by a host of grave problems, including the threat of nuclear destruction, the North-South gap, environmental degradation, refugees, racial discrimination, and ethnic conflict. And all of these problems, without exception, are the offspring of the modern world system. Can we look to that same system for solutions to these problems? The biggest problem created by capitalism is the ever-increasing disparities in wealth resulting from free competition, and the system that much of the world once looked to solve that problem_socialism_has proven itself unviable. The socialist bloc of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe has collapsed. China has switched to _a socialist market economy_ that is socialist in name only; and North Korea is in the grip of famine. The socialist system has exposed itself as the breeding ground of poverty. This is only one example, to be sure, but it is hard to escape the conclusion that the modern world system has basically exhausted its legacy in attempting to rectify the momentous problems facing the world.

 

 

 

BACK   CONTENTS   NEXT

 






サイトに関するご意見・ご質問・お問合せ   サイトマップ   個人情報保護

日本財団会長笹川陽平ブログはこちら



ランキング
注目度とは?
成果物アクセスランキング
1,508位
(32,645成果物中)

成果物アクセス数
6,188

集計期間:成果物公開〜現在
更新日: 2020年10月24日

関連する他の成果物

1.「SYLFF WORKING PAPERS NO.15」ビデオ (http://www.princeton.edu/duke)
2.東京財団1999年度年次報告書(和文)
3.東京財団1999年年次報告書(英文)
4.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第1回オープニングセッション?
5.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第2回世界の人々のアイデンティティ作りに役立つマンガ・アニメ?
6.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第3回マンガ・アニメ産業の存立基盤はSOHOにあり?
7.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第4回日本製マンガ・アニメが高い価値で世界市場で流通し日本にとっての収益源となるために、いま何が必要か?
8.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第5回マンガ・アニメで県づくり。新パラダイスは地方からスタートする?
9.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第6回日本製マンガ・アニメが更に発展するには何が必要か?
10.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第7回文化のローカライゼーション?
11.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第8回マンガ・アニメで県づくり。新パラダイムは地方からスタートする?
12.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第9回キャラクタービジネスのパースペクティブ?
13.日本発マンガ・アニメーションのダイナミズム ?第11回ポップカルチャーが作る新しい勢力図?
14.世界都市東京フォーラム「技術からの考案」会議録
15.世界都市東京フォーラム「歴史と文化からの考案」会議録
16.「日米韓安全保障協力:平時と有事の想定」
17.「米中両国にとっての朝鮮半島?日本の対朝鮮半島政策への含意」
18.Japan’s New Middle Eastern Policy
19.Policy Analysis Review
20.英文冊子 Intellectual Cabinet 2000
21.「国会におけるODA基本法の論議と地方自治体による援助の重要性」
22.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.18 「日本の外交安全保障戦略を考える」
23.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.19 「NPO法施行後の現状と課題」
24.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.23 「ビジネスモデルを通じた産業のダイナミズム」
25.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.26 「国民参加型外交の可能性と課題」
26.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.27 「これからの朝鮮半島の行方」
27.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.28 「マスコミによる経済事象の選択と報道」
28.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.29 「陳水扁新政権下の台湾政治」
29.Issues Series/論点シリーズ vol.30 「朝鮮半島の将来に日本が貢献できること」
30.「政策シリーズ」第18号「霞ヶ関1府12省体制は行革の決定通り進んでいるか?」
31.「政策シリーズ」第20号「金融監督政策の方向性について」
32.「政策シリーズ」第21号「COP6に向けた我が国の取り組み」
33.平成11年度里親研修会テキスト
  [ 同じカテゴリの成果物 ]


アンケートにご協力
御願いします

この成果物は
お役に立ちましたか?


とても役に立った
まあまあ
普通
いまいち
全く役に立たなかった


この成果物をどのような
目的でご覧になりましたか?


レポート等の作成の
参考資料として
研究の一助として
関係者として参照した
興味があったので
間違って辿り着いただけ


ご意見・ご感想

ここで入力されたご質問・資料請求には、ご回答できません。






その他・お問い合わせ
ご質問は こちら から