Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Ship for Estimation of CO2 Emission
Michihiro KAMEYAMA, Takeshi KIHARA, Katsuhide HIRAOKA, Hideyuki SHIROTA, Tetsuya SENDA, Shinya HAYASHI, Masaaki FUKUMOTO
The life cycle of the ship including materials and parts is so complicated that a full-scale LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) analysis of ships has not been carried out yet. Therefore, the authors tried to model LCI analysis of ships to establish a common tool to provide inventory data of ship transportation. A crude oil tanker was selected for the ship model. The scope of the analysis included the production of energy and materials; shipbuilding; operation; dismantling and recycling of used steel plates from dismantled ships. CO2 emission was selected as one of the analyzed loads to the environment.
Process analysis with matrix calculation for the simplified ship parts was used in the execution of the analysis. It was possible to estimate the amount of CO2 emission throughout the life cycle of the ship model and through the execution of the analysis, the implementation method of LCI analysis of ships was created.
Key Words: Life cycle of ship, Tanker, ISO 14000, LCA, Simplified LCI, Environmental loads of transportation, CO2
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), which evaluates the effect on the environment throughout the life cycle of products, has been spreading through the industrial world rapidly with the popularization of the ISO (International Standard Organization) 14000 series. The ISO 14000 series regulates that environmental loads from the production of the products to the disposal are quantitatively evaluated by the LCA. In Japan, it is necessary to consider shipping in LCI analysis which analyzes environmental life cycle loads of products, because Japan imports many raw materials for the manufacturing of materials, energies, etc. and exports many products by ship. However, the life cycle of ship including materials and parts from shipbuilding to operation, dismantling and material recycling is so complicated that real LCI analysis has not been carried out yet. Therefore, in this report, the implementation method of LCI analysis on environmental loads from ships is shown. When the authors apply the analysis method to a real crude oil tanker, CO2 emission throughout the ship's life cycle is calculated. Also, it will be shown which process, such as welding, operation of diesel engine, etc., emits the most CO2 gas to the atmosphere.
2. Goal and scope
The system boundary of the analysis is shown in Fig.1. The scope of the analysis includes the production of energy, materials and ship parts such as electric power, steel plates and diesel engine, etc.; shipbuilding; ship operating; dismantling and production of construction materials from used steel plates recovered from dismantled ships. Processing of solid wastes such as landfill or incineration, reuse of other parts from dismantled ships and recycling of iron scrap for melting or nonferrous metals are not included in the analysis.
The emission of CO2 to the atmosphere is the most important factor and the goal of the analysis is CO2 emission throughout the life cycle of ship per transportation unit (ton-km).
3. Analysis method
Process analysis is applied to clarify work processes that are related to environmental load items such as CO2 emission in the life cycle of the ships. The quantification of the environmental load items is carried out by matrix method  based on plan or process trees drawn up at each stage such as shipbuilding, operation, dismantling and material manufacturing for the construction. 
3.1 Data type
In this analysis, inventory data is used on the production of materials, electric power and fuels and parts in order to determine the process as it relates to the ship, as it was shown in Fig.1. The inventory data contains consumption of natural resources and emissions of the environmentally loading things to the environment, etc. from the mining of natural resources until the manufacture of products or services in operation.
* Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport,
6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004, JAPAN
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