日本財団 図書館

共通ヘッダを読みとばす


Top > 産業 > 運輸.交通 > 成果物情報

論文集 ISME TOKYO 2000 Volume?

 事業名 第6回舶用機関国際シンポジウムの開催
 団体名 日本マリンエンジニアリング学会  


PD-43

 

TECHNOLOGY FOR DEEP OCEAN DEPOSITION OF CO2

 

Bjφrn Kvamme

Department of Physics, University of Bergen

Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen, Norway, e-mail: bjorn.kvamme@fi.uib.no

 

ABSTRACT

In order to reduce the greenhouse effect several possible options for storage of carbon dioxide is yet being explored. The carbon content in the oceans could be increased by a factor in the order of six before thermodynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere is achieved. Storage of carbon dioxide on large depths (3000 m or deeper) is the ocean storage option that has the largest time scale for transport of carbon back to the surface water again. This is therefore the most attractive option. Construction of facilities for transport of carbon dioxide to large depths by pipeline will be expensive. Several concepts that can make use of gravity for parts of this transport have been proposed. These include sending the carbon dioxide as block of dry ice, dilution in seawater to create density gradients, production of hydrate and deposition of large cold droplets of liquid carbon dioxide at intermediate depths. Thermodynamic de-stabilisation of these different phases, and the corresponding kinetic rates depends on the free energy differences between the different phases. The background content of carbon in the oceans is generally too low to give hydrate stability. Hydrate particles will therefore melt as they sink towards the bottom. Melting rate will depend on the size of the hydrate particles but estimates indicates a very rapid melting due to very chemical potential of diluted (background concentration) C02 in seawater. Dry ice will melt as a function of heating from the seawater. In addition the chemical potential of carbon dioxide in the seawater at background concentration is lower than that of dry ice, which gives an additional driving force for the melting process. Ice formation will reduce this effect, similar to the idea behind the COSMOS approach. The production of dry ice still makes this a very expensive approach. In the COSMOS concept the idea is to send cold (-55 degree Celsius) liquid droplets from 500 m depth through a pipeline. This will result in ice on the droplet surface. Estimates indicates that this process might be too slow for the critical phase of the deposition stage. The situation might be improved if some of the carbon dioxide is converted to hydrate prior to deposition. If ice is formed and the system is mechanically stable the COSMOS approach is the thermodynamically most stable sending approach. Kinetic estimates indicate an fairly slow melting process even at 7 degrees Celsius.

 

I. INTRODUCTION

 

The yearly emissions of carbon to the atmosphere from fossil fuels is in the order of 6 Gt/year (Cole et.al. (1993), Herzog et.al. (1997)). In order to reduce the greenhouse effect several options for storage of carbon dioxide are being considered.

One option is the storage of carbon dioxide in disused oil and gas fields. The estimated worldwide capacity with this option is estimated to 180 GtC (Herzog et. al. (1997)). The distribution of these storage possibilities is however not evenly distributed around the world. Carbon dioxide may also be used as part of an EOR strategy. An example of this can be found in Sleipner Vest where the separated carbon dioxide is re-injected into the Utsira formation.

Another possibility is aquifers, which in Europe alone may represent a capacity of 200 GtC. Transformation of carbon dioxide to calcium- and magnesium-carbonate represent possible storage options on land. The cost of this is still somewhat uncertain and depends on the availability of mineral oxides.

 

 

 

BACK   CONTENTS   NEXT

 






サイトに関するご意見・ご質問・お問合せ   サイトマップ   個人情報保護

日本財団会長笹川陽平ブログはこちら



ランキング
注目度とは?
成果物アクセスランキング
581位
(31,138成果物中)

成果物アクセス数
16,801

集計期間:成果物公開〜現在
更新日: 2019年5月25日

関連する他の成果物

1.プログラム ISME TOKYO 2000
2.論文集 ISME TOKYO 2000 Volume?
3.ISME TOKYO 2000追加論文 ADVANCES IN MARINE ENGINE LUBRICATION
4.ISME TOKYO 2000 追加論文 FT8 Phase ? Reliability Improvement Program
5.PROCEEDINGS OF ISME TOKYO 2000 SPECIAL LECTURE
6.参加者名簿
7.展示用DIRECTORY
8.学会誌Vol.36 No.2
9.中高齢者の災害防止のためにイラスト入り中高齢者災害事例と安全対策墜落・転落編
  [ 同じカテゴリの成果物 ]


アンケートにご協力
御願いします

この成果物は
お役に立ちましたか?


とても役に立った
まあまあ
普通
いまいち
全く役に立たなかった


この成果物をどのような
目的でご覧になりましたか?


レポート等の作成の
参考資料として
研究の一助として
関係者として参照した
興味があったので
間違って辿り着いただけ


ご意見・ご感想

ここで入力されたご質問・資料請求には、ご回答できません。






その他・お問い合わせ
ご質問は こちら から