Slot allocation rules at congested airports
In Japan, the most congested airports are Type 1 (international), provided and managed by the national government (the Minister of Transport). Of those, Haneda and Narita airports are suffering from a lack of departure / arrival slots. Therefore, departure / arrival slots at congested airports are distributed based on government policies. Until entry regulations for aviation were relaxed, the industry was dominated by three major carriers, which negotiated with the Ministry of Transport regarding the distribution of slots. The March 1997 opening of the new runway C at Haneda Airport boosted the number of highly profitable slots for airlines. The Ministry of Transport set up a committee of academics and industry experts to establish a set of distribution rules. The committee adopted and implemented rules that protect the rights of existing air carriers while paying due consideration to newcomers to the industry. The Ministry of Transport is currently devising new rules for redistributing slots, including those originally set aside for existing carriers.
Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd.
Kansai International Airport (KIX) is the first Japanese international airport to operate around the clock. It should also be noted that it was built on reclaimed land and is managed by a commercial company. The Airport Development Law stipulates that international airports must be provided and managed by the central government. New Tokyo International Airport (Narita Airport) is, in fact, managed by a public corporation, the first exception to the regulations under the Airport Development Law. However, since the Narita Airport Authority is fully capitalized by the government, it is not considered to be a major departure from the existing policy. In contrast, Kansai International Airport was built by a private company, capitalized not only by the central government but also by local governments and private companies. For Stage 1 of the KIX construction, which included the building of a runway and a terminal, the central government contributed 20% of total construction cost, while local governments and businesses bore 5% each. In other words, the central government, local government, and local businesses provided 30% of the total cost without interests, and the remaining 70% was covered with commercial loans.