EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON PHYSICAL FITNESS IN QUADRIPLEGICS
Kyonosuke Yabe (Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan)
The purpose of this study was to describe some of muscular functions in disabled, and to promote the "twin basketball", as sport for the severely disabled. Ten quadriplegics (QG) and 15 paraplegics (PG) who were regularly participated in wheelchair twin basketball and tennis volunteered to participate in this study. Isokinetic peak torques in PG were significantly greater (p<0.05) than those in QG. As to the bone mineral density (BMD), there was significant difference in lumbar 2-4 between the two groups, but no difference was observed in neck of femur, which means the immobilization of the lower limbs.
One handed free-throw shots of basketball were analyzed by the 3-D space coordinates of the arm and the ball center. As compared with the able-bodied, QG indicated significantly smaller mean force value applied to the vertical direction during the time from the beginning of wrist dorsi flexion to the ball release (P<.05), and smaller maximum velocity of wrist ulnar-flexion (P<.01). For the all QG subjects, the ball did not reach to the basket of official height. Consequently, the basket of lower height is needed for QG players such as in the twin basketball.
SPORTS FOR PERSONS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY.
Rudi J. G. Chappel, former Medical Officer CP-ISRA. Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non progressive brain lesion that causes variable impairment of the coordination, tone and strength of muscle action, with resulting inability of the person to maintain normal postures and perform normal movements.
CP-ISRA (International Sports and Recreation Association) promote the development of sporting activities - competitive or non-competitive - for persons with CP.
Based on a functional evaluation eight classes are retained, four for wheelchair users and four for ambulant athletes. With this classification CP-athletes are allowed to compete - if they reach the minimal standards - in international and Paralympic events with other disability groups. Further they deserve special attention since they cannot always compete fairly against other disabilities in integrated competitions.
Besides Paralympic sports, special attention is paid to recreational and adapted physical activities. It has been empirically proven that those activities, including competitive sports, are not harmful for persons with CP, particularly with regard to muscle tone.