Fig.5 VLCC's geometry and grounding force position
On determining the necessary amount to be discharged from a definite tank, also the ullage of that tank should be defined.
There is a great problem, as a cargo-handling simulator cannot simulate grounding of a ship. Therefore the ship's trim is changing during lightering.
The participants were particularly warned about the low barge-loading rate. The simulation of lightering was carried out both, on the VLCC and the chemical carrier.
Fig.6 Simulation of VLCC lightering
4.4 Simulation of communication procedures with the GMDSS simulator
In Italy the official language is Italian, whereas in Slovenia is Slovenian. However, in case of an accident a common language should be used, which would be understood by all participants involved in rescue operations. There are some participants in either of the two countries speaking both languages. This, however, is not sufficient for an efficient rescue operation. Apart from that, a multiethnic ship's crew should also be taken into account. Therefore, the use of the common language - English - seems to be unavoidable.
In November 2001 the IMO Assembly issued the Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP) in order to standardise maritime communication, above all the one used in emergency procedures. Thus, one of the goals of the workshop was to familiarize participants with the relavant standardized phrases to be used in each stage of the rescue operation, i.e., from grounding through alarm procedure, rescue coordination, surveys, lightering to the final refloating operation.
This simulation was carried out by the communication simulator Transas TGS 2000. The participants first went through the practical use of VHF DSC station (call and working frequences, station settings, disturbance elimination, simplex and duplex communication etc.). Then the participants representing each individual rescue service tried to simulate their own role in the eventual real rescue operation of a grounded tanker. In that they used relevant SMCP phrases via the GMDSS simulator. This part of the simulation was conducted jointly by the experts in Maritime English and communication. The shortcoming of the mentioned simulation model is the lacking of the radar image, which is unavoidable in such procedures, particularly for the rescue teams working on board ships.
5. FINDINGS AND PLANS FOR THE FUTURE
Simulator training equipment did enable a great part of the rescue procedure, however, there were several limitations occurring at each simulator. We managed to eliminate part of them already by purchasing a more modem communication and nautical simulators. Besides, an electronic chart of our region together with an overall visualization is being made.
Certainly, also professional programming equipment for the analysis and assessment of the accident should be integrated , , , .
Simultaneously with our project also the project of the marine biological station was carried out, which included the positioning of the marine measuring buoy , showing on-line oceanographic parameters on the network. These are required to make up a model of the slick spreading.
Our Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transportation will also in the future make efforts to organize exercises on individual simulators, particularly for the services not directly related to the ship's handling.
Thus, our plans include:
・Simulation of person-over board activities. 5 days workshop using the communication and navigational simulators as well as on the scene rescue procedure with fast rescue boats. Participants: personnel responsible for search and rescue operations and seafarers.
・Environment protection simulation. 5 days workshop using the communication and navigational simulators as well as the model of oil spill spreading. Participants: personnel responsible for the intervension in case of an ecologic disaster.
・Simulation of on board fire fighting. 5 days workshop using the model of fire spreading and the navigational simulator (fire fighting on board tugs) as well as a practical fire drill on board ship. Participants: personnel responsible for fire fighting and seafarers.
・Workshop for the hotel keeping personnel. 3 days workshop using individual units of the engine simulator (diesel generators, air conditioning, pumps, evaporator...).
Offering the above simulator training our Faculty aims to become a kind of Maritime Safety and Pollution Control Research Center.
Fig.7 Online data from Oceanographic buoy
The analysis done after the end of workshops showed several benefits. Even though the participants were all experts on their field, the majority had not known the exact procedures of the ship and other services involved in the rescue operation. Above all, the use of the SMCP in the concerted action proved to have been of utmost importance.
We were able to bring together a considerable number of experts from Italy and Slovenia. Unfortunately, experts from Croatia could not take part in the project, as Croatia is not the associated member country with the EU.
It is hoped, given that sufficient funds will be obtained, that project will be extended in the future to the field of search and pollution.
The use of the simulating equipment available did not provide the optimum rescue simulation, however, the equipment has since then been updated and the plans for further work is already undergoing.
All MET and state institutions are highly recommended to organize similar simulator training, which, we now firmly believe, may facilitate more efficient rescue operations.
 Marie-Andree Mongeau "Exercise and Simulations on Engine Room Simulators: Conformity with STCW 95 Code", Proc. of ICERS 4, Vallejo, California, 1999
 E R Oddom "Simulator-Based Study of Human-Machine Interactions Under Emergency Conditions" Proc. of ICERS 4, Vallejo, California, 1999
 Hiroaki Kobayashi "MET and Assessment Using Ship Handling Simulator", Proc. of IMLA 11, WMU, Malmo, Sweden, 2000
 Hiroaki Kobayashi "On the Equivalency between Onboard and Simulator Training", INSLC, Kalmar, Sweden, 2000
 Jin Yongxing "To Improve Mariners' Safety Communication Ability by Applying SMPC", Proc. of IMLA 12, Shanghai, China, pp. 75-84, 2002
 Hiroaki Kobayashi "The Condition on Occurrence of Maritime Accidents and Bridge Team Management", Proc. of IMLA 12, Shanghai, China, pp. 85-93, 2002
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 Group of experts "Rescue Simulation of a Grounded Tanker, Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transportation, Slovenia, 2002
 Mary Rosa, "Comunication brakedown", Marine Engineers Review, Dec/Jan 2003, pp. 34-35, 2002
 Ge Wang, Hideomi Ohtsubo, Donald Liu "A Sipmle Method for Predicting the Grounding Strength of Ships" Journal of Ships Research, Vol. 41, pp. 241-247, 1997
 John R. Harrald, Thomas A. Mazzuchi, Jason Merrick, John Spahn, Rene Van Dorp, "System Simulations: a Risk Management Tool for Prince Willim Sound", Pro. of 1997 International Oil Spill Conference, pp. 545-550, Florida, USA, 1997
 IMO/UNEP: Regional Information System. Part A. Basic Documents, Recommendations, "Principles and Guidelines concerning Accidental Marine Pollution Preparedness, Response and Mutual Assistance, as well as Prevention of Pollution from Ships", REMPEC, January 2002
 IMO/UNEP: Regional Information System, Part D, Operational Guides and Technical Documents, Section 1 , "Guide for Combating Accidental Marine Pollution in the Mediterranean", REMPEC, October 2000.
 William I. Milwee "Modern Marine Salvage", SNAME, New Jersey, USA, 1996
Marko Perkovič is a senior lecturer of maritime studies. He lectures on ship's theory and marine engine systems. He is predominantly doing a research on ballast water exchange and simulator equipment. He is a dual officer.
Dusan Fabe is a Head of Department of Foreign Languages and a senior lecturer of Maritime English.
Capt. Valter Suban is a lecturer of maritime studies. He lectures on liquid carriers and cargo handling.