NEW TACKLE IN BRM TRAINING IN COOPERATION WITH RADAR/ARPA SIMULATOR TRAINING
Kenichi HIRANO (MARINE TECHNICAL COLLEGE, JAPAN)
Kenji MASUDA (MARINE TECHNICAL COLLEGE, JAPAN)
Shigero TAO (MARINE TECHNICAL COLLEGE, JAPAN)
Minoru OONO (MARINE TECHNICAL COLLEGE, JAPAN)
Naoto SATO (MARINE TECHNICAL COLLEGE, JAPAN)
Abstract:Marine Technical College (MTC, JAPAN), in new organization set up in accordance with the structural reform of the government has arranged to provide new tackles for the oceangoing and domestic shipping industries. MTC directly has accepted incumbent marine-officers to be trained in the field of OJT. The training using Ship Handling Simulator has been provided since 1987. Whole system was completely renewed three years ago, at the same time BRM (Bridge Resource Management) training for officers for both oceangoing and domestic shipping has been introduced in cooperation with Radar/ARPA simulator training for required skills and knowledge in any situation of visibility and any situation at most of the congested waters (Tokyo Bay, Bay of Osaka and Malacca Singapore Strait etc.). The contents of the training bas been carefully planned and prepared after consideration in request, response and discussion with the shipping companies and the experiences masters of the ships. In addition to the requirements of the STCW95, not the objectives and aims only, conduct of training so far fulfill the skins and knowledge which may be required by the competent officers. We would like to highlight not only BRM training and Radar/ARPA simulator training also training facilities and programs which provided by MTC for the safer navigation and cleaner ocean.
Marine Technical College (hereunder referring to as MTC) was established in '45 as vocational education and training institute in Japan under the ministry of transport MTC has turned out a thousand of competent seafarers so far and then sustained the Japanese shipping and shipping industries. However, recently, especially for these two or three decades the situation of Japanese Shipping was drastically changed i.e. generalization of mixed crew ship, rapid reducing of the number of seafarers onboard oceangoing vessel, rapid increasing of number of aging seafarers onboard vessel engaging domestic route. That is why sudden change of economic circumstances like oil crisis, drastic change of currency rate rate so on (Fig.1). According to this situation, the number of new entrants to MTC also has been steadily reduced except for a part of courses (Fig.2). The management to MTC under the MOT was transformed to MTC as the independent administrative institute due to the structural reform by the government of Japan. In another words, that means that it might be easier for MTC to establish the courses that suit needs for shipping industries (Fig.3). On the other hand, concerning center belonging to the shipping industry have carried out so-called "OJT(On the Job Training)" which is not carried out by the maritime institute including MTC under the ministry of education and the ministry of transport And also, incase of middle size or less shipping industries, and the most of shipping industries managing domestic routes, this kind of education training have been carried out inside of the company or at sea as "OJT." The national regulation on the ships' officers in Japan was strengthened and amended in May '98, and then the new maritime education and training condition according to STCW '95 started in April '99. MTC has started to accept the incumbent officers and masters as brush-up or senior trainees instead of the institutes belonging to shipping industries since last year. We would like to not only introduce a part of simulator training contents but specially refer to further cooperation between BRM training and Radar/ARPA simulator. We would like to contribute to improve the simulator training and its procedure which are most likely to be nucleus in the future maritime education and training because that we have some issues in conducting these training.
Fig.1 Size of Japanese Merchant Fleet
Fig.2 No. of candidates for certification in MTC
2. SHIP HANDLING SIMULATOR AND BRM TRAINING
Fig.3 No. of Trainees for the Simulator Training (f.y. 2002)
Ship handling simulator training in MTC has been started since '87. However, BRM training has been started about two years before because of further improving the system and lack of the management. MTC started this kind of training aimed at officers and masters from ocean-going shipping companies same as other institute carrying out this training. On the other hand, originally they said that it must have been difficult to accept those of domestic shipping companies. That's why the difference of watch keeping condition, education and training conditions, existence of a great number of very small companies and difficulty to prepare for the training conditions. However, the request to attend the training gradually and steadily increases from some domestic shipping companies due to build-up of safety attitude. Further more officers from domestic shipping companies are expected to attend this course.
2.2 Training subjects and its contents
Training contents of ship handling simulator in MTC for four days is as follows (Table 1).
Table 1 Schedule for Simulator Training
||BRM Training (BRM Concept)
||BRM Training(Case Study)
||BRM Training (Familiarization)
2.3 Present and future program
MTC is the first institute in Japan to start the training for the officers from domestic shipping companies. However, we have a great deal of issues in accepting officers and conducting this kind of training. Some shipping companies acknowledge the significance of BRM training at the same time they might have difficulty to send all officers to this training due to time allowance for officers and confirming the effect against expenditure. Concerning the replace and further improving the system, MTC have to have the plan for replacement in future. And the whole systems in the bridge should be kept good conditions and some equipment like ECDIS and AIS indication should be further added to suit the international regulation amended.
3. RADAR / ARPA SIMULATOR TRAINING
Radar simulator training in MTC has been conducted since '75. Previous whole system was replaced four years ago, and new on has four cubicles and set up three types of radar / ARPA system. Originally this training for the candidates for the certification is conducted under the ships' officers law in Japan under the STCW '95 requirements. Furthermore, for the incumbent officers from shipping companies, MTC has put emphasis on the contents as follows.
1( VHF communication training (Especially in English)
2) Deep discussion on the typical case of collision for both in the restricted visibility and in sight of one another
3) Full familiarization with using radar / ARPA
3.2 Present and future program
The contents for radar / ARPA simulator training in MTC fully comply with the '95 STCW and related recommendations in the IMO model-training course.
MTC has provided more than enough training for the candidates for the certification so far. Nowadays Domestic shipping companies has requested on the 1) and 2) mentioned above. MTC has tackled with further improvements on the training scheme and program for both domestic and oceangoing shipping companies.
4.COOPERATION WITH BRM TRAINING AND RADAR / ARPA SIMULATOR TRAINING
4.1 common parts
Originally Radar simulator training should be independent training for the candidates for the certification under STCW '95. Radar simulator training as BRM preliminary training could make the training effects further enhance. The reason to conduct radar / ARPA simulator training as BRM preliminary training could raise the following.
1) Familiarization for common waters and the outline of traffic flow
We set up the common waters for both simulator and provide the same traffic flow in order to further familiar with the training waters, which would be very efficient for especially new officers.
2) VHF communication training according to the SMCP. In accepting the new officers from the shipping companies, we made radio telecommunication training satisfactory using international VHF. Nowadays when mixed-crew ship is normalized, that is communication training in English for outside e.g. other ship, CG, VTS and Pilot boat, which might be difficult for Japanese officers, especially for the new officers. This kind of training is very effective from the "familiarization" point of view for the telecommunication procedure and VHF communication depending on the proficiency of English.
3) Unification of nautical instruments
Nautical equipments frequently used in the training like Radar, ARPA and ECDIS are expected to unify for both system.
4.2 Some issues in conducting training
4.2.1 Validity of the training which navigation in sight of one another apply in the radar / ARPA simulator training Radar simulator is not generally equipped with visual screen, radar simulator system in MTC also have no screen. The decision to avoid collision in actual situation is required to make on the basis of the confirmation by eye as well as information by radar. Radar simulator training has been conducted supposing that we are in the poor visibility i.e. which regulation 19 is applied. However, in accepting the new officers from the shipping companies, we are required to have the training in sight of one another i.e., which chapter 2 of the collision regulation applies. This might lead to expand the training area or range of the radar simulator training, and that might substantially increase the efficiency of the training because of not only it could be good training situation of fix position but also the collision regulation could be applied in different visibility situation. On the other hand, the applying for unskilled and inexperienced officers should be careful because that it bring with the difficulty to carry out the navigation training in poor visibility or in sight of one another only using radar / ARPA.
4.2.2. Validity of the training using international VHF as supplement procedure of avoiding collision
In accepting the new officers from the shipping companies, we made radio telecommunication training satisfactory using international VHF. Nowadays when mixed-crew ship is normalized, that is communication training in English for outside e.g. other ship, CG, VTS and Pilot boat, which might be difficult for Japanese officers, especially for the new officers. This kind of training is very effective from the "familiarization" point of view for the telecommunication procedure and VHF communication depending on the proficiency of English. On the other hand, in case that VHF communication is carried out among other ships, it might be problem that this is used as supplement procedure for avoiding action or the confirmation procedure of other ships intention. In case that this kind of training is carried supposing in the restricted visibility, it might be very difficult to identify he other ship more than the case in sight of one another and must be dangerous to communicate about the avoiding action in these situation, which include the functions to further encourage the dangerous situation. It must be required to carefully act which is not recommended even in sight of one another. Apart from the training in the ship handling simulator which secures the view, it might be reasonable to refrain from using VHF to confirm the bilateral intention even in the VHF communication training.
In '95 STCW amendment, ship handling simulator training including BRM training is stipulated in part B of the code, which means that it does not require conducting as the mandatory training. However, actually the number of trainees to attend this kind of training mentioned above has been steadily increasing due to build-up of safety attitude. Further more officers from domestic shipping companies are expected to attend this course. And also, in order to secure and continue the quality of the training the instructors having enough experience at sea, knowledge and definite intention to the training should be secured and, as the case may be, trained for conducting appropriate training. Performance of each system has been remarkably improved, but even now, we might say that the performance is below the level that officers and master as trainees are fully and completely satisfied especially for the maneuverability depending on the ships type and its size. Improvements on these issues are made. Putting out thoughts together at this present, following contents could be raised.
1) Reconfirmation of the significance related to human factor, which in another word, full using all resources on the ship.
2) Extension of the BRM training especially for the domestic shipping
3) Development of better training program and demand of satisfactory contents of the training (after discussion with the masters in each shipping company)
4) Cooperation with radar / ARPA simulator training aimed in common with VHF communication and training waters.
5) Necessity of the radar / ARPA simulator training as preliminary one of BRM training
From the point of view on the reasonable training fee and satisfactory training contents, MTC as independent administrative institution is greatly expected to meet shipping companies expectation as only maritime education and training institute which could carry out OJT.
 "Japanese Shipping 2002 JSA Annual Report" Japanese Ship owner' Association
 Kenichi HIRANO, Akihiko HORI, Minoru OONO, Naoto SATO Consideration on the improvement for the RADAR / ARPA Simulator Training", Marine Technical College, pp.7-14, 2003