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Conference Proceedings Vol. I, II, III

 事業名 海事シミュレーションと船舶操縦に関する国際会議の開催
 団体名 日本船舶海洋工学会 注目度注目度5


5. MULTICULTURAL CREW
 Nowadays more emphasis is put on safety and prevention of accidents. This was the reason why there are rising questions about the influence of multicultural crews on the occurrence of accidents. Based on a literature overview, the results found in the reports of the Dutch Shipping Council were checked regarding cultural differences.
 
 From our analysis of the reports of the Dutch Shipping Counsel we can see that in 19 of the 52 reports there could be some influence on the accidents by multicultural differences. Because in the reports no specific attention was paid to the influence of multicultural differences, the influence cannot directly be made explicit. But from the description of the events the presence of such influences can be distilled.
 
 From the data of the Content analysis we computed the correlations between the variable intercultural differences and the BRM clues. From these computations only the correlation between "intercultural differences" and "distraction"; and the correlation between "intercultural differences" and "breakdown in communication" are significant. No evidence was find regarding intercultural differences and the other BRM clues. Maybe this was due to the fact that nothing about cultural differences was mentioned explicitly in the reports. To investigate the relation between the BRM clues and cultural differences further research should be done.
 
6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 Conclusions
 
 Based on the Content analysis, the Assessment analysis and literature the following conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of a BRM Course on the accident/incident rate, and answer the questions stated in Section 1.2.
 
With respect to the questions:
 
1) What is the BRM content of the Dutch Shipping Council reports under investigation?
2) Does having followed BRM training by (part of) the crew reduce the probability of groundings and collisions?
 
the following conclusions are drawn:
 
・BRM topics, especially with respect to teamwork on the bridge play a large role in the cases studied.
・BRM related errors like improper conning/lookout, violation of rules and breakdown in communication have a relatively high prevalence.
・The role of intercultural aspects and company safety culture in the investigated accidents was noteworthy; these aspects play some role in at least 40% and respectively 70% of the cases.
・Also there turned out lo be differences with respect to background characteristics of the cases investigated. For example, in grounding situations BRM aspects play a more important role than in collision situations, especially with respect to ambiguity, improper conning/lookout, departure from passage plan; and in day time situations more BRM related errors take place than in night time situations, especially with respect to complacency.
・Only 3% (2 out of 73 officers) of the participants have completed a BRM Course in a Ship Management programme at STC or Nova College. It could not been traced if the subject had been trained at other institutes.
 
Regarding the third and fourth question:
 
3) Do Officers of the Watch with a BRM certificate behave differently during a simulator-based experiment compared to Officers the Watch who did not follow a BRM Course?
4) If yes, can this be translated into a reduced risk of having a collision or grounding?
 
 It is shown that Officers of the Watch with a BRM certificate performed better on almost all the clues, except the clues "ambiguity" and "violations of rules" than Officers of the Watch without a BRM certificate. They also had a higher "overall score" and a higher score on " quality of bridge management".
 
 Whether this could be translated into a reduced risk of having a collision or grounding can be answered on the fact that BRM related errors have a high prevalence in the cases of the accident reports. The participants who had a BRM certificate perform better on the BRM clues, than the participants without the BRM certificate, so it can be reasoned that BRM training has a positive effect on performance. Specific BRM clues with a bad performance are the clues communication and improper conning/lookout.
 
 The last two questions to be answered are:
 
5) Which literature supports this study?
6) Does a multicultural crew influence the occurrence of accidents?
 
 With respect to question five an extensive literature study was performed, in which also the effectiveness of BRM Course was stated. About question six, whether a multicultural crew can be a risk inducing
 
Table 7 BRM clues with a relatively high prevalence (this will not imply that they have the same values)
BRM clues Accident Reports Assessment Analysis Multicultural Factors
    BRM Course No BRM Course  
Ambiguity   X    
Distraction       X
Uncertainty/confusion     X  
Breakdown in communication X X X X
Improper conning/lookout X X X  
Departure from passage plan        
Violation of rules X      
Complacency        
 
factor, only assumptions can be made that there was a relation between the occurrence of intercultural differences and breakdown in communication and distraction, which are factors influencing the rate of accidents.
 
 An overview of the clues with a high prevalence is given in Table 7.
 
6.2 Recommendations
 
 Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made. The recommendations are grouped into sectors of the maritime industry, which should address these recommendations.
 
For Government Agencies:
 
 BRM Course evidently has a positive effect on the reduction of accidents. Therefore it is recommended to make a BRM Course mandatory for Watchkeeping Officers by IMO.
 
 It is also recommended to put more emphasis, by the development and evaluation of crew policy, on the cultural background of seafarers of other nationalities.
 
 There is a growing understanding that multicultural crews play a role in the occurrence of accidents. To find significant proof of the fact that multiculturalism plays a role, this aspect should be registered in all the accidents that happen and all the near misses should be properly registered including this aspect.
 
 Recommended to conduct more research about the influence of intercultural differences on the clues "distraction" and "breakdown in communication".
 
 Further recommendations would be on the improvement of the registration from all the people who attended a BRM Course. More in-depth conclusions can be drawn when complete registration of members who participated BRM will be made available.
 
 Recommended that more longitudinal research should be done on the lasting effect of BRM Courses. It is recommended to have a larger sample group and a reduced number of variables in further research; the results will be more valid.
 
For Training Institutions:
 
 Based on these conclusions more emphasis should be laid on the process of communication and to proper conning/lookout. In view of the increasing number of multicultural crews there should also be attention for intercultural communication. In all BRM Courses there should be a part about working together in mixed nationality crews.
 
 Further research should be done on the relationship between the BRM clues and the present theoretical description with respect to multicultural groups, e.g. the dimensions of Hofstede [5].
 
 Recommended to develop a cultural awareness training programme to cope with cultural differences on board.
 
 To improve "distraction" and "insecure/uncertain feeling" it is recommended to pay attention to pro-active thinking. Knowing what to do reduces the feeling of insecurity.
 
 A further recommendation would be the improvement of the registration from al the people who attend a BRM Course . More in-depth conclusions can be drawn when complete registration of members who participated BRM made available.
 
 Recommended is that more longitudinal research should be done on the effectiveness of BRM Courses. It is recommended to have a larger sample group and a reduced number of variables in further research; the results will be more valid. Recommended to contain more research about the influence of intercultural differences on the clues "distraction" and "breakdown in communication".
 
For the Dutch Shipping Council:
 
 It is recommended for the Dutch Shipping Council to keep track of human factors in their reports and to register human factors, because this will give reason for making improvements. It enhances further operational research and understanding.
 
For Ship Owners/Managers:
 
 Two of the main problems of multicultural crews are communication and language. To address this issue, it is recommended that ship owners/managers should improve the linguistic capabilities of their seafarers in English.
 
REFERENCES
[1] Barber, P. "Training using a multi-purpose Bridge and VTS simulator", Port Technology International.
[2] Flin, R. H., "Crew resource management for teams in the offshore oil industry", Team Performance Management, Vol. 3 No. 2, 121-129. (1997).
[3] Groeneweg, J. & Roggeveen V., "Tripod: Controlling the human error component in accidents. Safety and Reliability", Lydersen, Hansen & Sandtorv (eds). Balkema, Rotterdam. 1998
[4] Gudykust, W. B.. "Bridging differences Effective intergroup communication", 1994. In Interculturele communicatieve competentie. Psychologie en Maatschappij, jrg. 24, no. 1, pp. 5-14.
[5] Hofstede "Allemaal andersdenkenden: Omgaan met cultuurverschillen" Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Contact, 1993.
[6] IALA Recommendation V-103, "on Standards for Training and Certification of VTS Personnel", 1998.
[7] IATA Human Factors Working Group, "The evolution of Crew Resource Management: From managerial theory to safety tool", www.iata.org/oi/committees/hfwg. 2001.
[8] IMO, "Final Act of the Conference of Parties to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping fort Seafarers", 1978 (amended 1995), STCW 95.
[9] NAFTA Tri-National Human Factors Initiative, "Introduction to Human Factors in Aviation". www.cami.jccbi.gov/AAM-600/610/600Air-HFB.html, 2001.
[10] Pawlowski, J. S. "Simulation and Training for Marine Operations". Memorial University of Newfoundland.
[11] Pizzi L.; Goldfarb, N. I. & Nash, D. B. "Crew resource management and its applications in medicine" Thomas Jefferson University School of Medicine and Office of Health Policy & Clinical Outcomes.
[12]Reason J.T., "Human error". Cambridge University Press, 1990.
[13] Reason. J. T.; Parker D. & Free R., "Bending the Rules: The varieties, origins and management of safety violations", 1994. Department of Psychology University of Manchester.
[14] Shadid, W. A. "Interculturele communicatie" (in Penninx, R.; Munstermann H. & Entzinger, H., 1998. Etnische minderheden en multiculturele samenleving, Groningen, Wolters-Noordhoff, pp. 137-168.)
[15] Shadid. W. A., "Interculturele commumcatieve competentie", 2000. Psychologie en Maatschappij jrg. 24, no. 1, pp. 5-14.
[16] Thompson, J. L., "The future STCW Convention and Maritime Training", 1993 Prepared for delivery at Marsim '93.
[17] Vinken H. & Vermaas. J., "Waardenorientaties en transportveiligheid: Een inventarisatie van de impact van Hofstedes cultuurdimensies", 2001. Tilburg: IRIC/IVA Tilburg.
[18] Washington State Department of Ecology, "Bridge Resource Management Guide", 1999. Focus No, 99-1302.
[19] Maritime Simulation Rotterdam, "Assessment of the Effectiveness of Bridge Resource. Management Training". Final Report, 27 November 2002, 75 pp.
 
AUTHOR'S BIOGRAPHY
 Dr. J. H. Wulder is, as Research Manager of the MSR simulation facility, responsible for all ongoing research at MSR. In this function he was involved in several port optimization studies, accident analysis, hydrodynamic model Improvements, tug performance studies, risk analysis, VTS studies and projects in the field of human factors.
 
 During the last 16 years he was involved in ship simulation. In 1987 he graduated as Naval Architect with the specialisation in ship navigation. After then he was PhD-fellow at the Delft University of Technology. The subject concerned the integration of manoeuvring models and control theory. The results were applied in the design for an integrated navigation system. A new technique was designed to determine the ship manoeuvring model based on sea trials.







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更新日: 2020年10月17日

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