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Conference Proceedings Vol. I, II, III

 事業名 海事シミュレーションと船舶操縦に関する国際会議の開催
 団体名 日本船舶海洋工学会 注目度注目度5


2.3 Involvement and simulation of ship-born equipment
 
2.3.1 Simulation of navigation sensors
 Navigation and ship handling simulators have to provide all the information displayed on the shipborn equipment such as ECDIS, radar, echo sounder, speed-log and rate of turn indicator. These sensors have to be adequately represented by simulation technology including the falsification due to environmental effects and malfunctions. The sensor simulation must produce the reverse functionality of the real navigation sensor: for example, in case of gyro sensor simulation the real (system) heading is already known, but the sensor simulation must reverse-calculate the displayed heading taking into account all aspects of gyro behaviour and failures. Even the ECDIS can be taken as a kind of sensor which may be afflicted with errors like wrong reference or offset. On board of ships this can lead to confusion specifically in case of overlaying information of other navigation equipment as for instance radar or tracks/routes and now additionally with the implementation of AIS.
 A simulator with realistic sensor simulation capability and effective presentation of the sensor characteristics can be a tool for specific related training and research on that area, most important when using Integrated Bridge and navigation systems.
 Some aspects of sensor simulation technology are described in [17]. The Figure 3 provides a good example how to make the sensor effects visible.
 
Figure 3: 
Proposed Presentation of Ownship System track with superimposed Sensor track
 
2.3.2 ECDIS as basis for Navigation and Bridge Simulation
 Electronic Chart systems are becoming the core element of navigation systems on board of vessels. Since the formal adoption of the performance standards in 1995 several systems of Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) were developed and are now in use on ships. The expectations range from "revolution of maritime navigation" to a critical attitude concerning safety and reliability - and to a potential lack of experience in operation by mariners. IMO has designed the specific Model Course 1.27 to enhance the safety of navigation by providing the knowledge and skills to fully utilise the features of ECDIS. So it is no wonder that ECDIS related training became a part of maritime simulation. The first ECDIS system in a simulator was established in the SUSAN simulator of ISSUS in Hamburg as part of a full mission ship handling simulator. Nowadays most of the bridge and navigation simulators are equipped or even based on these systems.
 The increasing needs for this specific training even lead to specific ECDIS simulators, focussing on that one subject in the same way as GMDSS simulators have been doing before. The complexity of the functions available in an ECDIS (now even more enhanced by AIS functions) is by no doubts worthwhile to call for specific simulator type as for example presented in Figure 4.
 
Figure 4: 
Layout of an ECDIS simulator, based on STN-system ANS 5000 components and SevenCs' Orca Master
 
 The training on those specific simulators has a lot of benefits. For instance, as cost effective pre-training, for achieving the full level of skills it is necessary to also use the ECDIS in the complete environment of a full mission simulator. This is an experience which was made with GMDSS as well.
 
2.3.3 Automatic Identification System (AIS)
 The Universal Automatic Identification System (AIS) provides a huge variety of potential applications and services which exceed the well known ship-to ship data exchange. This system has the potential to become the key element for information exchange and will play an important role for the efficient flow of data between all parties concerned on ship and on shore. As a new function in maritime traffic the AIS has to be integrated into marine simulation. It will definitely be an element of new navigation simulators but also an absolutely necessary part of a simulator upgrade into existing simulators. Our simulation centre MSCW was on the leading edge on AIS research and so already in 1998 we had the first AIS component integrated in one of our bridges in a rather elementary form for the exchange of data between ship bridges and also the VTS simulator.
 However, the decision of IMO for mandatory implementation of AIS into shipping until 2008 was made and new standards for AIS information interchange (content and structure) and presentation of AIS information on several screens (minimal display, Radar, ECDIS) have been developed.
 The following figures are comparing the different stages of the first approach at our centre with the upgraded version made by our own staff.
 
Figure 5: 
AIS component integrated in a rather elementary form in STN-NACOS Multipilot system on Bridge 1 of MSCW
 
Figure 6: Upgraded AIS information in an ECDIS on Bridge 2 at MSCW







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更新日: 2019年9月14日

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