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Recent Advances in Marine Science and Technology, 2002

 事業名 海洋科学技術に関する太平洋会議の開催
 団体名 国際海洋科学技術協会 注目度注目度5


ON THE RESPONSE OF RESIDENTS AROUND THE TOKYO BAY AQUALINE BRIDGE
 
Naohiro Takahashi, Yoshihiko Maeno and Mitsuo Takezawa
 
Nihon University
Tokyo, JAPAN
takezawa@civil.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp
 
ABSTRACT
 
Fifteen major bays exist along the 35,000-km shoreline of Japan, including seven closed bays and eight open bays. Recently, a number of large bay bridges have been planned in Japan. The bay bridge spanning Tokyo Bay between Kawasaki and Kisarazu entered service in 1997. The present study investigates the concerns of residents living near the Kisarazu side of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine to the opening of the bridge. Kisarazu had been a prosperous port town for several decades, but recently the prosperity of the area has declined. In the present study, one-thousand residents of Kisarazu were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding the effects of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine on the local economy and communities. The conclusions are as follows:
(1) Kisarazu was within easy access of metropolitan Tokyo, Yokohama and Haneda International Airport.
(2) There was a lack of entertainment in and around Kisarazu Station and Kisarazu Harbor, although no major changes were made to Kisarazu after beginning service Tokyo Bay Aqualine.
(3) Kisarazu is to be revitalized by attracting tourism, and vitalizing commerce and fishery.
(4) Kisarazu will be developed with preserved nature and will have many opportunity of doing business in fishery.
(5) In order to economically strengthen Kisarazu, the fundamental tourist attractions, such as marine life, seafood restaurants and fishing resources as well as shell gathering at low tide around Kisarazu Harbor and Banzu Tideland must be boosted.
 
INTRODUCTION
 
Bridges and tunnels can bring prosperity to cities and towns on either side of the bay, channel and river that they connect. A number of bridges and tunnels have been constructed in order to help connect neighbors. However, until recently, the length of such bridges and tunnels was 2-3 km at most. In 1964, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel (approximately 28 km long) connected Norfolk and Cape Charles at the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay in the U.S. (Heibonnsha, 1967). The construction of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel was an epoch-making achievement. In Japan, the Tokyo Bay Bridge-Tunnel (called the Tokyo Bay Aqualine, approximately 15 km long) was constructed to link the cities of Kawasaki and Kisarazu that border Tokyo Bay. How do residents on either side of the bridge-tunnel respond to the construction of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine? The purpose of the present study is to search for some revivals plan in and around Kisarazu from results of questionnaire.
 
TOKYO BAY AQUALINE
 
The toll highway across Tokyo Bay was proposed by Ministry of Construction in 1966, and the investigation was taken over by the Japan Highway Public Corporation in 1976. The Tokyo Bay Aqualine was opened to traffic between Kawasaki and Kisarazu on December 18, 1997. The Tokyo Bay Aqualine was constructed in order to vitalize cities and towns along Tokyo Bay.
 
The Tokyo Bay Aqualine is divided by an artificial island called the sea firefly into a 4.4 km bridge section from Kisarazu and a 9.5 km tunnel section from Kawasaki. Although the estimated traffic was 25,000 cars per day at the time, the bridge opened, at present only about 13,000 cars per day use the Tokyo Bay Aqualine due to the high toll. Figure 1 is the site map of Tokyo Bay. Photo 1 shows a scene of a declining Kisarazu and Photos 2, 3, and 4 are the Tokyo Bay Aqualine.
 
HISTORY OF KAWASAKI AND KISARAZU
 
The development of Kawasaki is a result of the Tama River, which flows between the Tokyo Metropolis and Kanagawa prefecture. Kawasaki was a post town on the Tokaido during the Edo period (1600-1889). A number of factories have been built along the coastal zone of Kawasaki since 1900. After World War II, Kawasaki has prospered as the center of the Keihin Industrial Area, which is one of three large industrial areas in Japan. Recently, Kawasaki has been developing into a region associated with highly advanced research and manufacturing and is becoming a world-class ultra-technology center. Kawasaki has a specially designated major port for which the annual gross tonnage of ships and boats putting into the harbor is approximately 91 million gross tons. The total cargo handled at the harbor was 92 million tons in 2000. At present, the population of Kawasaki is approximately 1,230,000, the land area is 142 km2 and the number of households is 547.000 (Asahi newspaper, 2002). Figure 2 shows a map of the Kawasaki area and the junction of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine.
 
During the early Edo period, Kisarazu was under the direct control of the Tokugawa Shogunate and marine transportation between Edo and Kisarazu was restricted.
The harbor of Kisarazu has been a collection and distribution area for local goods. The Kisarazu harbor was constructed in 1908 and was designated as an important harbor nationally in 1945. At present, Kisarazu is a small city of the population 123,000 and the number of households 46,600 even though the land area is 138 km2. Kisarazu is the center of a provincial city along Tokyo Bay in Chiba prefecture and has a major port for which the annual gross tonnage of ships and boats putting into the harbor is 4 1 million gross tons of ships and boats (Japan Harbor Association, 2002). The total cargo handled at the harbor was 69 million tons in 2000. Moreover, Kisarazu has two fishing harbors (Kaneda and Ushigome) that support 230 registered boats and handle 1100 tons of fish annually. The Banzu tideland fans out from the mouth of the Obitsu River in Kisarazu, and many people come to the tidelands to gather seashells at low tide. Figure 3 shows a map of the area around Kisarazu and the junction of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine.
 
The standard of living in Kisarazu is approximately ten times higher than that Kawasaki. In 2000, annual store sales in Kisarazu were 315 billion yen, compared to 2.78 trillion yen in Kawasaki, and annual expenditures in Kisarazu were 33 billion yen, compared to 548 billion yen in Kawasaki. Table 1 shows data of Kisarazu and Kawasaki in 2001.
 
QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS
 
The Tokyo Bay Aqualine began service between Kawasaki and Kisarazu in December 1997. Whereas Kawasaki is adjacent to Tokyo, Kisarazu is located approximately 50 km the Tokyo region. Previously Kisarazu was a prosperous port town, supplying goods and labor from Chiba prefecture to the Keihin districts of Tokyo, Yokohama, and Kawasaki. New economic development and prosperity based on sightseeing, commerce, and resort industries was expected upon opening of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine. However, the expected economic development and prosperity did not materialize. In the present study, a questionnaire was concerning the effects of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine on the residents of Kisarazu was performed. Contents of the questionnaire are as follows:
(1) Gender.
(2) Occupation.
(3) Age.
(4) Do you hope to settle here in future?
(5) What are your feelings concerning the future of Kisarazu harbor?
(6) What is the pride of Kisarazu?
(7) What are the effects of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine?
(8) Which route do you take when traveling to Tokyo, Yokohama, Kawasaki?
(9) What is the direction in which Kisarazu is heading?
(10) What is the image of Kisarazu?
(11) Where are the sightseeing spots in the area?
(12) In what leisure activities do you engage in the area?
(13) How many times have you been to the Banzu Tideland?
(14) What are your feelings concerning the protection of the Banzu Tideland?
(15) Why did you visit the Banzu Tideland?
One thousand residents of Kisarazu were asked to respond to the questionnaire. The questionnaire was carried out in 2001 by the custody method through the mail using post cards. Out of 1,000 questionnaires, 316 were completed and returned. The responses are summarized as follows:
(1) Gender of respondents: male 57%, female 43%.
(2) Occupation of respondents: housewife 26%, no occupation 24%, office worker 22%, fishermen 7%, self-employed 5%, student 5%, other 7%.
(3) Age of respondents: 80〜89 years 2%, 70〜79 years 5%, 60〜69 years 29%, 50〜59 years 25%, 40〜49 years 19%, 30〜39 years 14%, 20〜29; 4%, 13-19 years 2%.
(4) Respondents hoping to settle in Kisarazu in the future 68%, respondents displeased with living in Kisarazu were 24%.
(5) Maintain the status quo of Kisarazu harbor 46%, Kisarazu harbor should be expanded in future 30%, Kisarazu harbor should be eliminated or reduced in size 6%.
(6) Pride of Kisarazu: nothing 37%, sea products, such as the short-necked clam or sea-weed 15%, nature 8%, gathering sea shells 6%, weather 5%, Academia Park 4%, history 3%, inexpensive housing 3%, other 19%.
(7) Effect of Tokyo Bay Aqualine: good 70%, bad 16%.
(8) Traveled to Kawasaki and Yokohama via Tokyo Bay Aqualine 48%, traveled to Kawasaki and Tokyo via Tokyo Bay Aqualine 37%, traveled to Tokyo via Chiba along Tokyo Bay 31%.
(9) Future of Kisarazu: sightseeing 36%, commerce 28%, fishery 10%, industry 9%, agriculture 8%.
(10) Image of Kisarazu: abundant nature 50%, fishery town 20%.
(11) Sightseeing spot: nothing 48%, Sea firefly 20%, Ota mountain 8%, Banzu tideland 7%.
(12) Leisure activities: shell gathering 87%, golf 20%, fishing 20%, hot springs 3%.
(13) Trips to Banzu tideland per year: more than 10 trips 6%, four or five trips 2%, two or three trips 12%, one trip 17%, no trips 58%.
(14) Respondents that agreed to the protection of the Banzu tideland 88%.
(15) Reason for traveling to the Banzu tideland: gathering sea shells at low tide 52%, fishing 17%, wild bird watching 16%.
Cross-totaling results are as follows:
(1) Questions (1) and (4): 70% of male and female respondents answered "settle at present address".
(2) Questions (2) and (4): 80% of fishery, self-employed and no occupation respondents answered "continue present living situation".
(3) Questions (3) and (4): 80% of respondents in their sixties or older answered "continue present living situation" and 70% of respondents under sixty answered "live in a different situation in the future".
(4) Questions (2) and (5): Concerning the future of Kisarazu harbor "Kisarazu harbor should be maintained in its present state" was the most prevalent response for all occupations, and the second most prevalent response was "expansion". Among the self-employed, 30% of respondents answered reduction or elimination of Kisarazu harbor.
(5) Questions (3) and (5): Several respondents in all age groups answered either that Kisarazu harbor should be maintained in its present state or expanded. However, a number of respondents in their thirties, forties and fifties answered that Kisarazu harbor should be reduced or eliminated.
(6) Questions (5) and (9): Respondents who stated that Kisarazu harbor should be maintained in its present state or expanded identified tourism and commerce are the future of Kisarazu.
(7) Questions (2) and (6): Over 30% of working respondents answered the Japanese pear, the short-necked shell and seaweed, in that order. A number of respondent answered nature and history.
(8) Questions (4) and (6): The pride of respondents hoping to remain in Kisarazu were reported as the short-necked shell, sea-weed and nature, respondents hoping to leave Kisarazu was the Japanese pear.
(9) Questions (9) and (6): Several people hoping that sightseeing, commerce and fishing would be developed answered the short-necked shell, seaweed, nature or gathering seashells at low tide, as the pride of Kisarazu.
(10) Questions (7) and (8): 70% of respondents who said the effect of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine was good used the Tokyo Bay Aqualine to travel to Kawasaki, Yokohama and Tokyo.
(11) Questions (7) and (9): Several respondents answered that the areas for development should be sightseeing and commerce.
(12) Questions (1) and (8): 62% of male and 75% of female respondents travel to Kawasaki, Yokohama or Tokyo.
(13) Questions (2) and (8): Housewives are the most users of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine. (80%)
(14) Questions (3) and (8): Over 50% of residents of all ages use the Tokyo Bay Aqualine as their usual route.
(15) Questions (4) and (8): 72% of respondents hoping to settle in Kisarazu use the Tokyo Bay Aqualine.
(16) Questions (1) and (9): 53% of male and 61% of female respondents expect development sightseeing and commerce to develop.
(17) Questions (2) and (9): Though several residents hoped for the development of sightseeing and commerce in general, public servants hoped for the development of agriculture.
(18) Questions (3) and (9): Respondents over eighty years of age hoped for the development of commerce and agriculture, whereas teen-age respondents hoped for the development of sightseeing. Respondents from twenty to seventy-nine years of age hoped for the development of sightseeing, commerce, agriculture or fishing.
(19) Questions (4) and (9): 33% of respondents hoping to settle in Kisarazu hoped for the development of sightseeing.
(20) Questions (1) and (10): 40% of males and 33% of females reported the image of Kisarazu to be that of abundant nature, and 10% of males and 22% of females reported the image of Kisarazu to be that of a fishing village. (21) Questions (2) and (10): 40% of students reported the image of Kisarazu to be that of nature, and 60% of students reported the image of Kisarazu to be that of fishery. Other respondents reported the image of Kisarazu to be that of nature and fishery.
(22) Questions (3) and (10): Several residents over sixty years of age feel that the image of Kisarazu is that of nature. Respondents in their twenties, thirties, forties and fifties feel that the image of Kisarazu is that of nature and fishery.
(23) Questions (4) and (10): 40% of respondents hoping to settle in Kisarazu feel that the natural areas of Kisarazu are abundant. Respondents hoping to leave Kisarazu feel that Kisarazu is a town of odds and ends shops.
(24) Questions (2) and (11): The sightseeing spot was reported to be the sea firefly of the Tokyo Bay Aqualine by 40% of students, 25% of public workers, 20% of fishermen, 25% of housewives and 20% of office workers.
(25) Questions (3) and (11): Respondents in their eighties answered gathering sea shells at low tide. Several residents in their twenties, thirties or forties answered the sea firefly. However, teenage respondents answered that Kisarazu had no sightseeing spots.
(26) Questions (4) and (11): 15% or 25% of respondents hoping not to settle in Kisarazu reported that the sightseeing spot is the sea firefly, whereas respondents hoping to settle in Kisarazu reported that no sightseeing spot exists in the area.
(27) Questions (9) and (11): 40% of respondents who reported the direction of development in Kisarazu to be fisheries stated that the sightseeing spot is the sea firefly.
(28) Questions (2) and (12): Employed respondents of all types answered that the leisure activities in Kisarazu is gathering seashells at low tide.
(29) Questions (3) and (12): Respondents of almost all ages answered that the leisure activity in Kisarazu is gathering seashells at low tide. Secondly, residents in their twenties and older answered that leisure activities in Kisarazu are fishing and playing golf.







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