Grotius thus recognized the right of sovereign states to wage war.
This theory of war was actually applied in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) concluded at the end of the Thirty Years War, which is now viewed as the basis of modern international law. After the publication of De Jure Belli ac Pacis, Europeans came to gauge international relations in terms of a world view based on war, exercising their right to wage war in the name of self-defense. Europe was involved in a total of 278 wars throughout the world from 1480 to 1940, and peace came to be defined simply as the state of not being at war. In so far as the balance of power among sovereign states possessing mechanisms for the use of force was regulated by this legal theory of war, the nations of Europe viewed military power an essential element of their sovereignty and accordingly strove to strengthen their armies. This is the logic of power politics.
Through his victory at the Battle of Sekigahara (1600), Tokugawa Ieyasu gained authority over the whole of Japan, assuming the ancient title of seii taishogun (_barbarian-subduing generalissimo_) in 1603. At this time, no international law had been established anywhere in the world, but the government (shogunate) that had achieved national unification had to maintain relationships with Japan_s neighbors. It is not surprising, therefore, that the world view and international order through which Japan gauged foreign relations developed in a different direction from those of Europe.
Disarmament based on Moral Politics Versus Expansion of Armaments based on Power Politics
While the principle of war and peace underlying the European world view has its origins in the Islamic world view of Par al-halb (_home of war_) and Dar al-Islam (_home of peace_), the world view of Tokugawa Japan undoubtedly originates from the Chinese concept of civilization and barbarism. One of the prisoners taken by Toyotomi Hideyoshi during his campaigns in Korea in the 1590s was a disciple of Zhu Xi Neo-Confucianism named Kyok_(Kan Han??), who lived in Fushimi in Kyoto from 1597 until his return to his country in 1600. While he was in Japan, Kyok (Kan Han??) developed a close friendship with Fujiwara Seika, a Zen monk from Shokokuji temple, who converted to Zhu Xi Neo-Confucianism under Kyok_s influence. Seika is said to have written the famous treatise on statecraft, Honsaroku (also known as Chiy_Shichij_ or The Seven Essentials of Government), which outlines the seven principles essential for ruling a country. Under the heading of the _First Principle, the author reflected on the strife-ridden Sengoku period in Japan: _We hear that in China the nation is governed without the use of force, and that the 400 provinces have been thus governed for many generations. Japan, however, has in recent years been completely ungovernable._ Under the Seventh Principle, the author concludes that Japan must follow the example of China and adopt Confucianism in order to govern the country without the use of armed force: _It is a difficult task to govern the realm with both pen and sword. First it is essential to pacify the country with the sword and then to govern the people benevolently with the pen so that they naturally learn the right way and conduct themselves in a reasonable manner. Provided that the present ruler (Tokugawa Hidetada) maintains the principle of the Way of Heaven, unselfishly exerts himself for the realm and embodies the three virtues of wisdom, benevolence and courage, the country should prosper forever from generation to generation. Thus the author of Honsaroku argued that it was vital to rule the country through civil rather than military administration now that the turbulent Sengoku period had come to an end.
The reduction of armaments in Tokugawa Japan is surely related to the shogunate s recognition and adoption of Confucianism as its official doctrine. In 1605, Hayashi Razan, who had studied under Seika, entered the service of the retired shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu and served four shoguns as Confucian adviser, an office which became hereditary in the Hayashi family.