4. Sea Ice Terminology
The nomenclature and terminology of ice in the nature varies widely from country to country. Perhaps a dozen glossaries of sea-ice terminology have been published, all different in some respects. In 1956, the International Geophysical Year (IGY), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) introduced a measure of international consistency in this terminology. The WMO updated its glossary in 1970 and published it in English, French, Russian and Spanish, illustrating the terms with photographs. A Japanese translation of the terms was provided in a 1971 volume called "New WMO Sea Ice Nomenclature" by Yushiro Kuga and Masaomi Akagawa (Seppyo [snow and ice] 33, pp98-105). With subsequent revisions, the glossary was published again in 1990 by the Japan Meteorological Agency as "Oceanological Observation Guidelines (Meteorological Agency Edition)." A list of categories with brief descriptions in Japanese can also be found in the "Dictionary of Snow and Ice" (1990, Kokinshoin).
When the WMO established its glossary of sea-ice terms, ice was primarily observed from the shore, sea or air, and the categories in this volume reflect that bias. In a slight revision (1985, 1989), terminology was added that reflected observation from below the ice, in submarines. As the leading role in sea-ice observation shifted to satellites, much larger ice patterns became observable, requiring the addition and standardization of a raft of new terms. The standard terms for these more newly observed phenomena have not yet been selected. SOF uses its own translation of "Russian - Japanese Dictionary on Sea Ice (SOF, March 2000)," to which the WMO has added categories and definitions. Focusing on the sea-ice categories listed by the WMO, an explanation of certain key terms was provided in the original Japanese text.
For a more detailed explanation of each of these terms, please refer to the terminology of the World Meteorological Organization.