TYPES AND FREQUENCY OF COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH TETRAPLEGIA
Cop-Rupic R., Sekelj-Kauzlarid K., Potrebica S. (Med. Rehab. Cent. Var. Toplice, Croatia) Kejla Z. (Clin. for traumat. Zagreb, Croatia)
In this paper the complications developing in patients with cervical spinal defects and resulting tetraplegia are described.
From the beginning of 1994 until the end of 1996 year, 63 patients with tetraplegia were rehabilitated in the Rehabilitation Centre in Varazdinske Toplice, Croatia.
In the course of the rehabilitation lasting usually for six months the patients developed the following complications: uroinfect (44%), decubitus at different locations (19,7%), respiratory infect with ensuing pneumonia (15,5%), infected wounds at postoperative cuts or treumas (10%), phlebothrombosis (7,7%) and lung embolism (2,9%). Round 16% of the patients had muscular spasms when leaving hospital.
The majority of the patients (65,5%) had only one of the complications: 52,3% had between one and three of the complications at the same time.
A comparison of the types and frequency of the complications during rehabilitation of the patients with tetraplegia, with those from reference literature has confirmed the importance of a timely and an all-inclusive and aimed rehabilitation procedure.
ANALYSIS OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF ANTIDECUBITUS CUSHION WITH THERMOGRAPHY
M. Ferrarin (Centro di Bioingegneria, Fond. Pro Juventute - Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy), N. Ludwig (Ist. di Fisica generale applicata, Universita degli Studi, Milano, Italy)
Purpose: In this study a method to analyze the thermal properties of seat cushions for wheelchair by means of thermography is presented. The thermal properties (heat capacity and conductivity) are important factors that contribute to cushion comfort and to pressure sores prevention in wheelchair users.
Method: Four cushions have been considered: (A) countered firm foam base covered by a gel pad, (B) matrix of air-filled rubber balloons, (C) matrix of gel-filled rubber balloons with a foam base and (D) matrix of foam-filled balloons with a gel-filled area under the buttock. An infrared thermographic system (TVS-2000, Nippon Avionics Co., Tokyo) was used with a temperature resolution of 0.05℃ and a sampling rate of 30Hz. The protocol foresaw the following series of acquisition: (I) initial condition (before seating), (II) during a 15 min. seating (at 5, 10 and 15 min.) and (III) during the cooling period (at 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min. after the seat off). The room temperature was maintained at 25℃ and all trials were performed with the same healthy subject. In order to reduce thermal noise the recorded images were averaged on 32 frames.
Results and conclusion: Considering the average temperature on the total surface, cushion (B) presented the fastest thermal dynamic both during heating and cooling, while cushion (C) showed the slowest ones. The peak temperature values achieved after 15 min. of seating were respectively 31.35゜(A), 30.55゜(B), 28゜(C) and 29゜(D), and they were generally positioned under the thigh area. Concerning the ischial area, that is the most critic for pressure sores onset, the lowest temperature was maintained by cushions (C) and (D). This study showed that thermographic approach provides useful information for wheelchair cushion optimization.