日本財団 図書館

共通ヘッダを読みとばす


Top > 歴史 > アフリカ史 > 成果物情報

Archaeological Survey of the Raya/al-Tur Area on the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, 2003

 事業名 港市遺跡をめぐる「海のネットワーク」と「陸のネットワーク」の総合的調査研究
 団体名 中近東文化センター 注目度注目度5


Collective Report for the Botanical Materials Excavated from the Site 1997-2003
by
 
Introduction
 About 900 samples of plant materials were collected from the excavations at the site, South Sinai and Egypt in the 1997-2003 seasons. Most of these samples are woody materials. Species identification was carried out on the anatomical structure of the samples under a light microscope. The materials were grouped under 38 plant families. Most are still growing in Egyptian deserts and wadis, where some were introduced from other countries mentioned in the text. Each species is described as to plant form, habitat, the region of the species growth, and anatomical structure of the wood. The number of identified samples is grouped under each species as follows:
 
Acacia ehernbergiana Hayne
English: Acacia
Arabic:
Family: Mimosaceae
Archaeological finds: RT 26, RT 235, RT 284, RT 536, RT 835, RT 888, RT 936, RT 1191, RT 1739, RT 3017, RT 3018, RT 3244, RT 3545, RT4929, RT 4992, RT 5161, RT 5532, RT 5759, RT 5767, RT 5871, RT 6026, RT 6157, RT 6177, RT 6491, RT 6568, RT 6886, RT 7157, RT 7499 and RT 7796.
Comments:
 Evergreen shrub growing in desert wadis. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by its light, firm appearance; xylem vessels are wide and solitary. 1-5-seriate rays. Most of the archaeological finds are in the form of worked wood. The plant still grows in eastern desert wadis, the Red Sea region and the Elba Mountains in Egypt. The archaeological finds bear out that the plant was imported from the Red Sea region.
 
Acacia etbaica Schwienf.
English: Acacia
Arabic:
Family: Mimosaceae
Archaeological finds: RT 455, RT 2092, RT 3055, RT 3480, RT 5967 and RT 8542.
Comments:
 Evergreen shrub or small tree growing in desert wadis and gravelly plains. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by its light, brown, firm appearance xylem vessels are wide and solitary. Multiseriate rays up to 15 cells. Most of the archaeological finds of decorated fragments of worked wood appear to be furniture parts. The plant still grows in Sinai and desert wadis in Egypt. The large number of finds and the quantity of unworked wood are related to the local origin of the tree.
 
Acacia gerrardii Bentham. subsp. negavensis Zoh.
English: Acacia
Arabic:
Family: Mimosaceae
Archaeological finds: RT 229, RT 616, RT 1144, RT 3496, RT 5280 and RT 5897.
Comments:
 Evergreen shrub or small tree growing in desert wadis and sandy plains at elevations up to 800 m above sea level. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by the faint growth rings, xylem vessels are wide, solitary, diffuse, rounded; spiral lignification occasionally present. 1-6-seriate rays. Most of the archaeological finds of decorated fragments of worked wood appear to be needles, bottle covers and branch parts. The plant grew in central Sinai until 1983; the finds and the unworked wood indicate a local origin.
 
Acacia millifera (Vahl) Benth.
English: White-acacia
Arabic: khashab
Family: Mimosaceae.
Archaeological finds: RT 1600, RT 2553, RT 2572, RT 2984, RT 3221, RT 3398, RT 3812, RT 5857, RT 7746 and RT 8541.
Comments:
 Evergreen shrub growing in desert wadis. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by a firm, dark appearance, and indistinct growth rings. Xylem vessels are wide, solitary, diffuse rounded; spiral lignification occasionally present. 4-5-seriate rays. Most of the archaeological finds are decorated fragments of worked wood, but there are also unworked wood blocks, charcoal and stem branches. The plant does not now grow in Sinai, but the finds and the unworked wood indicate the past local origin of the tree.
 
Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile
English: Nile-acacia
Arabic:
Family: Mimosaceae
Archaeological finds: RT 42, RT 604, RT 1749, RT 5892 and RT 7629.
Comments:
 Evergreen medium-sized tree growing in all the phytogeographical regions in Egypt. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by solitary xylem vessels or in groups of three, each vessel or group of vessels surrounded by alliform parenchyma bands. The archaeological finds are worked wood, in addition to unworked wood, gum, charcoal and stem branches. The plant still grows in Sinai.
 
Acacia tortilis (Forssk) Hayne subsp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.
English: Desert-acacia
Arabic:
Family: Mimosaceae
Archaeological finds: RT 46, RT 48, RT 65, RT 89, RT 174, RT 230, RT 408, RT 477, RT 927, RT 1360, RT 1423, RT 2363, RT 2537, RT 2813, RT 2924, RT 3046, RT 3053, RT 3098, RT 3238, RT 3451, RT 3517, RT 3756, RT 4403, RT 4493, RT 4540, RT 4572, RT 4608, RT 4713, RT 4717, RT 4868, RT 5099, RT 5169, RT 5209, RT 5362, RT 5610, RT 5896, RT 6199, RT 6205, RT 6353, RT 6411, RT 6470, RT 6500, RT 6552, RT 6578, RT 6635, RT 6801, RT 6884, RT 6916, RT 7107, RT 7115, RT 7715, RT 7853, RT 7882 and RT 8000.
Comments:
 Evergreen small tree growing in hot desert wadis and still the common desert tree in Sinai. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by the absence of growth rings or faint ones, xylem vessels are wide, solitary or in radial clusters, diffuse. 1-6-seriate rays. A large number of the archaeological finds are decorated fragments of worked wood, in addition to unworked wood, blocks, charcoal and stem branches. The plant still grows abundantly in Sinai; the finds and the unworked wood indicate a local origin (pl. 1-1 to 1-4).
 
Acacia sp.
English: Acacia
Arabic:
Family: Mimosaceae.
Archaeological finds: RT 247, RT 1275 and RT 7517.
Comments:
 The wood anatomy of these finds looks like the preceeding acacias, but the degree of destruction makes specific identification difficult.
 
Anagyris foetida L.
English: Bean-clover
Arabic:
Family: Caesalpinaceae
Archaeological find: RT 119.
Comments:
 Evergreen shrub growing in open semi-steppe vegetation. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by distinct growth rings; xylem vessels are diffuse with semi-ring-porous. 1-4-seriate rays. One archaeological find is an unworked stem branch. The plant is not recorded in Egypt or in Sinai, so the find may have been imported from Israel, Jordan, or from the Irano-Turanian region.
 
Arundo donax L.
English: Giant Reed
Arabic:
Family; Gramineae
Archaeological finds: RT 73, RT 371, RT 1118, RT 2009, RT 6509 and RT 7627.
Comments:
 Perennial giant-reed growing in moist places. The archaeological finds are of unworked culm fragments and a cup-like part (pl. 1-5 & 6). The plant still grows in all the phytogeographical regions in Egypt, so the finds are of local origin.
 
Avicennia marina (Forssk) Vierh.
English: White-mangrove
Arabic:
Family: Avicenniaceae
Archaeological finds: RT 72, RT 2015, RT 2704, RT 2816, RT 2896, RT 3230, RT 4218 and RT 4486.
Comments:
 Evergreen salt-tolerant small tree growing along the Red Sea shores and the Red Sea coastal strip of south Sinai. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by distinct growth rings; xylem vessels are wide, solitary or in radial clusters. 1-4-seriate rays. The archaeological finds of worked wood look like boat fragments, in addition to unworked wood blocks, charcoal and stem branches. The plant still grows abundantly in Sinai, the finds and the unworked wood indicating the local origin of the finds.
 
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile
English: Egyptian-plum
Arabic:
Family: Balanitaceae
Archaeological finds: RT 49, RT 102, RT 2324, RT 2887, RT 3458, RT 4353, RT 4500, RT 4648, RT 5701, RT 6603 and RT 7463.
Comments:
 Evergreen small tree growing in hot desert wadis, the Nile valley and in oases. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by indistinct growth rings; xylem vessels are wide, solitary or in radial clusters of 2-3, diffuse. 9-35-seriate rays, with distinct sheath. The archaeological finds are worked and unworked wood, fruit and stem branches. The plant still grows along the Red Sea coast and in Egypt, but not in Sinai, so the plant may have been imported from the western side of the Red Sea.
 
Brassica nigra (L.) Koch.
English: Black-mustard
Arabic: khardal aswad
Family: Cruciferae
Archaeological find: RT 401.
Comments:
 Annual medicinal plant growing in moist wadis, the Nile valley, the Mediterranean strip, oases and Sinai. The archaeological find is one black-mastered seed.
 
Bambusa arundinacea Willd.
English: Common Bamboo
Arabic:
Family: Gramineae
Archaeological find: RT 1546.
Comments:
 Giant-reed of common bamboo, the plant does not grow in Egypt. The archaeological find is a culm fragment morphologically distinct. The plant may be of African origin.
 
Buxus sempervirens L
English: Common Box-tree
Arabic: baqs
Family: Buxaceae
Archaeological finds: RT 190, RT 1484, RT 3546 and RT 6742.
Comments:
 The common box-tree is a large tree not growing in Egypt. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by solitary scattered xylem vessels with scalariform perforation and diffuse porous. 2-seriate rays. The archaeological finds are decorated fragments of worked wood in the form of pots, furniture parts and arabesque units. The finds may be of foreign origin.
 
Cadaba farinosa Forssk
English: ――
Arabic: ――
Family: Capparidaceae
Archaeological find: RT 5469.
Comments:
 Evergreen small tree or shrub growing in hot desert wadis. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by the absence of growth rings; xylem vessels are solitary or in radial clusters. 1-2-seriate rays. One archaeological find is in the form of worked wood. The plant does not grow in Sinai at present, but it grows in the Red Sea region and the Elba mountains. The find may be imported from one of these regions.
 
Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton
English: Mudar
Arabic:
Family: Asclepiadaceae
Archaeological finds: RT 2015, RT 6480 and RT 6482.
Comments:
 Evergreen shrub growing in desert wadis, the Nile valley and on plains. The wood anatomy of the stem is characterized by the absence of growth rings or very faint ones. Xylem vessels are in radial clusters. 1-6-seriate rays, up to 25 cells high; lacticifers present in some rays. The archaeological finds are worked wood looking like parts of fishing gear. The plant still grows along the Red Sea coast and Sinai; the finds are of local origin.







サイトに関するご意見・ご質問・お問合せ   サイトマップ   個人情報保護

日本財団会長笹川陽平ブログはこちら



ランキング
注目度とは?
成果物アクセスランキング
2,428位
(31,734成果物中)

成果物アクセス数
2,993

集計期間:成果物公開〜現在
更新日: 2020年2月22日

関連する他の成果物

1.エジプト・シナイ半島 ラーヤ・トゥール地域の考古学的調査第23次(2003年度)
2.エジプト・シナイ半島 ラーヤ・トゥール地域の考古学的調査第23次(2003年度)
  [ 同じカテゴリの成果物 ]


アンケートにご協力
御願いします

この成果物は
お役に立ちましたか?


とても役に立った
まあまあ
普通
いまいち
全く役に立たなかった


この成果物をどのような
目的でご覧になりましたか?


レポート等の作成の
参考資料として
研究の一助として
関係者として参照した
興味があったので
間違って辿り着いただけ


ご意見・ご感想

ここで入力されたご質問・資料請求には、ご回答できません。






その他・お問い合わせ
ご質問は こちら から