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Conference Proceedings Vol. I, II, III

 事業名 海事シミュレーションと船舶操縦に関する国際会議の開催
 団体名 日本船舶海洋工学会 注目度注目度5


 Regarding an assessment of the manoeuvring behaviour in the context of the present paper a short digression has to be conducted. Without going into details of the IMO interim standards it has to be recalled that the author already some years ago demanded a necessary revision, Oltmann (1998). This affects in particular the first overshoot angle of the 10°/10° zigzag manoeuvre. What revision was requested can be seen in Fig. 15, namely a constant limiting value of 17°independently from the speed of the ship.
 
Fig.15 
Manoeuvring Standards Regarding 10°/10°Zigzag Manoeuvre
 
Fig.16 
Correlation Analysis for the Slope of the Spiral Curve rcR) at the Origin
 
 Fig. 16 shows the first overshoot angle of the 10°/10°zigzag manoeuvre for 70 data sets of ships all being unstable in yaw versus the reciprocal value of the slope of the spiral curve at origin. The correlation between both variables is not very evident (correlation factor r=.55). Nevertheless, the figure, additionally showing HSVA's limiting line, can be applied for an assessment. The figure shows that overshoot angles larger than 17°appear at abscissa values of approximately 0.9. This means that in the case of values ≥0.9, in order to be on the safe side, additional measures should be made.
 
 Two measures are conceivable. First, tests with the freely manoeuvring ship model. Only two zigzag manoeuvres are necessary, namely the 10°/10°zigzag manoeuvre, which provides the true first overshoot angle, and for instance a 10°/1° zigzag manoeuvre with a reduced switching angle of 1° which gives qualitative information about the dynamic yaw stability, e.g. see Oltmann (1979). Second, captive model tests, to be performed with PMM or CPMC facilities, are feasible. In this case only three test runs are necessary to obtain the six hydrodynamic coefficients of Eq. (25) needed to determine the slope of the spiral curve and its reciprocal value, respectively.
 
6. CONCLUSIONS
 The paper presents novel approaches for the main linear sway and yaw damping coefficients Y'v, Y'r, N'v, and N'r. With respect to the influence of the aft hull form this is an initial step in the right direction, but not yet the final solution. This is confirmed by the relatively large scatter shown in the comparisons of the estimated values with the corresponding data of HSVA's manoeuvring data base. Therefore, further efforts are necessary.
 
 However, it also has to be kept in mind that the regression formulas presented show global characteristics which are as far as possible valid for different ship types like bulk carriers and container vessels.
 
REFERENCES
[1] Barr, R.A., "A Review and Comparison of Ship Maneuvering Simulation Methods", Trans. SNAME, Vol. 101, pp. 609-635, 1993.
[2] Clarke, D., "An Investigation into the Course Stability of the B.S.R.A. 0.85 Block Coefficient Methodical Series Form", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 18, No. 188, pp. 117-126, 1970.
[3] Clarke, D., "The Effects of Skegs and Stern Shape on the Dynamic Stability of Ships", Proc. 2nd Intern. Conf. on Manoeuvring and Control of Marine Craft, University of Southampton, pp. 167-185, 1992.
[4] Clarke, D., Gedling, P. and Hine, G., "The Application of Manoeuvring Criteria in Hull Design Using Linear Theory", Trans. RINA , London, PP. 45-68, 1983.
[5] Clarke, D. and Horn, J.R., "Estimation of hydrodynamic derivatives", Proc. 11th Ship Control Systems Symposium, Southampton, U.K., Vol. 3, pp. 275-289, 1997.
[6] Crane, C.L., Eda, H. and Landsburg, A.C., "Controllability" in Principles of Naval Architecture (E.V. Lewis, Editor), SNAME, Jersey City. Vol. 3, pp. 191-422, 1989.
[7] Cura Hochbaum, A. and Vogt, M., "CFD Developments for Manoeuvring", Proc. Intern. Manoeuvring Colloquium, Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Germany, Paper No. 7, 2002a.
[8] Cura Hochbaum, A. and Vogt, M., "Towards the Simulation of Seakeeping and Mauoeuvring Based on the Computation of the Free Surface Viscous Ship Flow", 24th ONR Symp on Naval Hydrodynamics, Fukuoka, Japan, 2002b.
[9] Fujino, M., "Prediction of ship manoeuvrability: State of the art", Proc. Intern. Conf. Marine Simulation and Ship Manoeuvrability, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 371-387, 1996.
[10] Grim, O., "Die Schwingungen von schwimmenden zweidimensionalen Körpern (Teil 1 und 2)", Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Report Nos. 1090 and 1117, Unpublished, 1956/1957.
[11] Inoue, S, Hirano, M. and Kijima, K., "Hydrodynamic Derivatives on Ship Manoeuvring", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 28, No. 321, pp. 112-125, 1981.
[12] International Maritime Organization, "Interim Standards for Ship Manoeuvrabiliy", IMO Assembly Resolution A.751(18), Adopted November 1993.
[13] Keil, H. and Thiemann, H., "Experimentell bestimmte hydrodynamische KenngröBen bei periodischen Querbewegungen schwimmender Körper", Schiffstechnik, Vol. 10, No. 53, pp. 133-137, 1963.
[14] Kijima, K., Tanaka, S. Furukawa, Y. and Hori, T., "On a Prediction Method of Ship Manoeuvring Characteristics", Proc. Intern. Conf. on Marine Simulation and Ship Manoeuvrability, St. John's, Canada, Vol. 1, pp. 285-294, 1993.
[15] Kijima. K., Nakiri, Y. and Furukawa, Y., "On the Prediction Method for Ship Manoeuvrability", Proc. Intern. Workshop on Ship Manoeuvrability, Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Germany, Paper No. 7, 2000.
[16] Kose, K. and Misiag, W.A., "A Systematic Procedure for Predicting Maneuvering Performance", Proc. Intern. Conf. on Marine Simulation and Ship Manoeuvrability, St. John's, Canada, Vol. 1, pp. 331-340, 1993.
[17] Kose, K., Misiag, W.A. and Xiong. X., "Systematic approach for ship manoeuvrability prediction", Proc. Intern. Conf. on Marine Simulation and Ship Manoeuvrability, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 535-545, 1996.
[18] Norrbin, N.H., "Theory and Observations on the Use of a Mathematical Model for Ship Manoeuvring in Deep and Confined Waters", SSPA, Gothenburg, Sweden, Publication No. 68, 1971.
[19] Oltmann, P., "Bestimmung der Manövrier-eigenschaften von Schiffen aus aufgemessenen Bahnkurven", Schiff & Hafen, Vol. 30, No. 7, pp. 630-636, 1978.
[20] Oltmann, P., "Beitrag zur Ermittlung des dynamischen Gierverhaltens von Schiffen", Schiff & Hafen, Vol. 31, No. 11, pp. 985-990, 1979.
[21] Oltmann, P., "Coefficient Estimation", Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Internal Report, Unpublished, 1992.
[22] Oltmann, P., "On the influence of speed on the manoeuvring behaviour of a container carrier", Proc. Intern. Conf. on Marine Simulation and Ship Mandeuvrability, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 515-523, 1996.
[23] Oltmann, P., "Reflections on the Assessment of the Manoeuvring Behaviour of Ships", Proc. Intern. Conference on Ship Motions & Manoeuvrability, RINA, London, Paper No. 10, 1998.
[24] Roseman, D.P., Editor, "The MarAd Systematic Series of Full-form Ship Models", SNAME, Jersey City, 1987.
[25] Tamura, K., "The Calculation of the Hydrodynamic Forces in Horizontal Direction and the Moments Acting on a Two-dimensional Body", Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Report No. 1253, Unpublished, 1961.
[26] Wagner Smitt, L., "Steering and Manoeuvring of Ships - Full Scale and Model Tests", European Shipbuilding, Vol. 19, No. 6, 1970, and Vol. 20, No. 1, 1971.
 
AUTHOR' S BIOGRAPHY
 The author studied naval architecture between 1958 and 1964 at the Technical University Hanover and at Hamburg University. In 1964 he joined the Research Department of the Hamburg Ship Model Basin (HSVA) and was engaged in investigations on the reduction of ship's frictional resistance, interactions between passing ships, and the design of lateral thrusters. From 1972 to 1980 he worked for a special research pool for ship technology at the Institut für Schiffbau of Hamburg University. Thereby he was substantially concerned with the development of HSVA's Computerized Planar Motion Carriage (CPMC) put into operation in 1975. In 1978 he received his doctorate from the Technical University Hanover with a paper entitled "Determination of Manoeuvring Characteristics from Trajectories of Free-running Ship Models". In 1980 he returned to HSVA and since then has been responsible for manoeuvring related problems. Between 1981 and 1990 Dr. Oltmann served as a member of the Manoeuvrability Committee of the International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC). Since 1988 he has been Chairman of the Manoeuvrability Committee of the German Society of Naval Architects (STG).







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