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Conference Proceedings Vol. I, II, III

 事業名 海事シミュレーションと船舶操縦に関する国際会議の開催
 団体名 日本船舶海洋工学会 注目度注目度5


9. CONCLUSION
 Ship-handling/Manoeuvrability criteria as below are proposed to reflect and apply to manoeuvrability design for large full ships.
 
(1) Allowable loop widths are referred to Table 3 where the author's course stability criteria and operator's comments are classified.
(2) Loop width in initial design stages is to be preferably smaller than 5〜6°, with allowance up to 7〜8°.
(3) Dimensional angular velocity (deg./sec) during 30° course change, both at t=30sec and the maximum, are to be checked in view of operator's feeling.
(4) VLCC class vessel's path in turning and course change on passing seaway is preferably to be within 1,000m in view of position control.
 
 Application to manoeuvrability design, when allowable loop widths are given on manoeuvrability/ship-handling performance criteria are to be done by recognizing the study results and the design charts herein given.
 
(1) Loop widths increase if the actually fitted rudders are smaller than the Standard rudder area ratio proposed by the author and decrease if they are larger than that. These relationships are almost linear.
(2) Relationships between stern profiles and loop widths concerned, loop widths of Inv.-G type are generally small, Mariner types are larger than Inv.-G and Stern bulb types show the largest widths compared with others.
(3) Stern profile indices are proposed and the rudder-skeg area ratio is newly defined. The design charts are given for estimating the loop width where the rudder-skeg area ratio, form factor K and aft fullnessγA are relatedly incorporated, by which every parameter can be decided reasonably with trade-off each other in the initial design stages.
 
 The author felt through this study that the ship designers should understand how the ships are actually operated in seaways, and that the ship operators, not only handle and manage the ships safely by their excellent skills and experiences, but also should comment to the ship designers about the insufficient manoeuvrability or points to be modified, if any. Otherwise such problems are not acturized and might cause the accumulated stress of the operators in ship-handling.
 
 The author expects that ship designers and ship operators share their responsibilities reasonably with each other by utilizing these study results for safe ship-handling.
 
REFERENCES
[1] Hiroaki Kobayashi "The Evaluation on the Safety of Ship-Handling Using Ship-Handling Simulator", Japan Towing Tank Committee Symposium, The Society of Naval Architects of Japan, pp. 6.1-6.29, 2000
[2] Kozaburo Yamada "Ship-Handing/Manoeuvrability Criteria and their Application to Stern Profile-Rudder Area Design", Mini Symposium on Prediction of Ship Manoeuvring Performance, Japan Marine Dynamics Research Sub-Committee, pp.113-123, 2001
[3] Tomohisa Nishimura, Hiroaki Kobayashi "Human Characteristics on Maneuvering Ship with Course-instability on Passing Fairway", The Journal of Japan Institute of Navigation, Vol.107, pp.69-76, 2002
[4] Charles Bryan Barrass "The Phenomena of ship Squat", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol.26 pp. 44-47, 1979
[5] Keinosuke Honda "Running Trim of a Very Large Tanker through Shallow Waterway", Navigation, Nautical Society of Japan, Vol.36 pp.6-10, 1972
[6] Nobuatsu Koseki, Yasufumi Yamanouchi, Shiko Matsuoka, Yoshitsugu Yamasaki "Some Experiments on Shallow Water Effects upon Turning Ability", The Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 117,pp139-145, 1965
[7] Yoshifumi Yamanouchi, Nobuatsu Mori "Manoeuvrability on Shallow Water, Nautical society of Japan", 20th Anniversary Issue, pp.47-62, 1968
[8] Makoto Kan, Tatsuro Hanaoka "Analysis for Effect of Shallow Water Turning", The Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan. Vol. 115, pp.49-55, 1964
[9] 17th ITTC Proceedings Vol. 1, pp.430, 1984
[10] Shigeru Sato, Ichiro Nakamura, Matao Takagi, Takashi Jono, Kozaburo Yamada, Masami Hikino, Tadao Takai, Hideo Yao "On a Study of Ship-Controllability of a Wide-Beam Tanker Using Large Scale Models", The Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 134, pp.205-222, 1973
[11] Kiyoshi Hara "Analysis of Avoiding Act of Large Tanker - The Statistic Characters of Ship Traffic II", The Journal of the Nautical Society of Japan, Vol. 37, pp.137-143, 1967
[12] W.A. Wagenaar "Human Aspects of Ship Manoeuvring and Simulation", International Shipbuilding Progress No. 185, 1970
[13] Symposium "Ship Manoeuvering and Human", Nautical Society of Japan, Navigation Vol. 35, pp. 3-24, 1971
[14] Kohei Otsu, Kazuhiko Hasegawa Proceedings of The 3rd Symposium on Ship Manoeuvrability, The Society of Naval Architects of Japan, pp.243-280, 1981
[15] Kensaku Nomoto, Takao Motoyama Loss of Propulsive Power Caused by Yawing with Particular Reference to Automatic Steering, The Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 120, pp.71-80, 1968
[16] Hayama Imazu, Yasuo Yoshimura, Takeo Koyama "Critical Range for Collision Avoidance by Large Ship", The Journal of Japan Institute of Navigation, Vol. 88, pp.145-151, 1993
[17] Yahei Fujii, Hiroyuki Yamanouchi "Marine Traffic Accidents - IV - Influence of Visibility and Darkness -", The Journal of the Nautical Society of Japan, Vol. 50, pp.21-28, 1973
[18] Tsukasa Nagahata "The Characteristics of Navigators on the Manoeuvers for Avoiding Collision", The Journal of the Nautical Society of Japan, Vol. 48, pp.77-85, 1972
[19] Iwao Watanabe, Haruyuki Taguchi, Yasuo Yoshimura "Recent Researches on Trends on the Regulations for the Safety of ships", The 13th Marine Dynamics Symposium The Society of Naval Architects of Japan, pp.177-212, 1997
[20] Takashi Nobukawa, Toshio Kato, Ken Motomura, Yasuo Yoshimura "Studies on Maneuverability Standard from Viewpoint of Marine Pilots", MARSIM and ICSM, pp.143-150, 1990
[21] Key Pyo Rhee, Sun Young Kim, Nam Sun Son Young Jae Sung "Review of IMO Manoeuvring Standards in view of Manoeuvring Sea Trial Data", Mini Symposium on Prediction of Ship Manoeuvring Performance, Japan Maritime Dynamics Research Sub-Committee, pp.1-20, 2001
[22] Japan Hamworthy: http://www.japanham.co.jp
[23] "Success for rudder on large vessels, The Motorship", pp.59, June 1988.
[24] Kozaburo Yamada "A Method of Judging Manoeuvrability and Rudder Area Design for Large Ships", The Journal of Kansai Society of Naval Architects, Vol. 134, pp.33-41, 1969
[25] Kensaku Nomoto "Response Analysis of Manoeuvrability and its Application to Ship Design" 60th Anniversary Series, Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol.11, pp.43-51, 1966
[26] Kozaburo Yamada "A Design Procedure of Stern Profile and Rudder Area for Large Full Ships in view of Course Stability", The Journal of Kansai Society of Naval Architects, Vol. 236, pp.167-174, 2001
[27] Ship Design Manual, 4th Revised Edition Kansai Society of Naval Architects, pp.449, 1983
[28] Japan Ship Exporter's Association and the Shipbuilders' Association of Japan "Ship- building and marine engineering in Japan", 1989-1999
[29] Noriyuki Sasaki "Japan Towing Tank Committee Symposium", The Society of Naval Architects of Japan, pp.35-36, 1999
[30] Amt Egil Raestad "A Classification Society's Experience with IMO Resolution No. A.751 (18)", Marine Simulation and Ship Maneuverability, pp.309-318, 1996
[31] Kozaburo Yamada "A Proposal to Mane-uverability Design Standard of Large Full Ships Based on Ship Handling Performance", The Journal of Kansai Society of Naval Architects, .Vol. 236, pp.159-166, 2001
[32] Noriyuki Sasaki "Bulletin of The Society of Naval Architects of Japan", No. 869, pp.44-47, 2002
[33] Kozaburo Yamada, Koji Nagahama, Yoshitaka Furukawa "Current Situation and Measures for Prediction of Ship Manoeuvrability in Initial Design Phase", West-Japan Society of Naval Architects "Symposium on the IMO Manoevrability Standards," pp.49-72, 2002
 
AUTHOR'S BIOGRAPHY
 Kozaburo Yamada is a graduate of Osaka University in 1963, where he studied the manoeuvrability of VLCC, instructed by Prof. K. Nomoto. He worked for Hitachi Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. since 1963 and participated in the initial design of "ESSO OSAKA." He also joined the research project to investigate the scale effect in manoeuvrability model experiments for 400,000 DWT ULCC, using 4m, 10m and 30m long models. He belongs to three societies of naval architects of Japan and is also a member of the Japan Institute of Navigation, because his main concern is both the manoeuvrability and the ship-handling performance. He participates in the manoeuvrability research and design of merchant ships and naval ships in Universal Shipbuilding Corporation (Re-organization of Hitachi Shipbuilding & NKK in October, 2002). The manoeuvrability design concept for the stern configuration and the rudder, presented in this paper has been applied to the VLCC recently built in the Shipyard. He holds a Doctoral degree in Engineering from Osaka University.







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