Ship-handling/Manoeuvrability criteria as below are proposed to reflect and apply to manoeuvrability design for large full ships.
(1) Allowable loop widths are referred to Table 3 where the author's course stability criteria and operator's comments are classified.
(2) Loop width in initial design stages is to be preferably smaller than 5〜6°, with allowance up to 7〜8°.
(3) Dimensional angular velocity (deg./sec) during 30° course change, both at t=30sec and the maximum, are to be checked in view of operator's feeling.
(4) VLCC class vessel's path in turning and course change on passing seaway is preferably to be within 1,000m in view of position control.
Application to manoeuvrability design, when allowable loop widths are given on manoeuvrability/ship-handling performance criteria are to be done by recognizing the study results and the design charts herein given.
(1) Loop widths increase if the actually fitted rudders are smaller than the Standard rudder area ratio proposed by the author and decrease if they are larger than that. These relationships are almost linear.
(2) Relationships between stern profiles and loop widths concerned, loop widths of Inv.-G type are generally small, Mariner types are larger than Inv.-G and Stern bulb types show the largest widths compared with others.
(3) Stern profile indices are proposed and the rudder-skeg area ratio is newly defined. The design charts are given for estimating the loop width where the rudder-skeg area ratio, form factor K and aft fullnessγA are relatedly incorporated, by which every parameter can be decided reasonably with trade-off each other in the initial design stages.
The author felt through this study that the ship designers should understand how the ships are actually operated in seaways, and that the ship operators, not only handle and manage the ships safely by their excellent skills and experiences, but also should comment to the ship designers about the insufficient manoeuvrability or points to be modified, if any. Otherwise such problems are not acturized and might cause the accumulated stress of the operators in ship-handling.
The author expects that ship designers and ship operators share their responsibilities reasonably with each other by utilizing these study results for safe ship-handling.
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Kozaburo Yamada is a graduate of Osaka University in 1963, where he studied the manoeuvrability of VLCC, instructed by Prof. K. Nomoto. He worked for Hitachi Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. since 1963 and participated in the initial design of "ESSO OSAKA." He also joined the research project to investigate the scale effect in manoeuvrability model experiments for 400,000 DWT ULCC, using 4m, 10m and 30m long models. He belongs to three societies of naval architects of Japan and is also a member of the Japan Institute of Navigation, because his main concern is both the manoeuvrability and the ship-handling performance. He participates in the manoeuvrability research and design of merchant ships and naval ships in Universal Shipbuilding Corporation (Re-organization of Hitachi Shipbuilding & NKK in October, 2002). The manoeuvrability design concept for the stern configuration and the rudder, presented in this paper has been applied to the VLCC recently built in the Shipyard. He holds a Doctoral degree in Engineering from Osaka University.