visualization on PC of a sailed scenario
In first: reactions the following conclusions were agreed upon:
・Ships can avoid extreme bad weather
・Ships prevent to be exposed to extreme conditions in order to save fuel and to avoid training-costs for the rest of the crew. Such extreme conditions are only for training-use for the commander and his navigation-team.
・Officers sail less and have consequently less experience
・Simulators are a useful tools to fill this gap
・The simulator-program must be extended for training-use. Much attention must be paid to give the trainee the right feeling of bad weather by using the right visual cues for water-surface (color, wind-stripes etc.), using the right amount of acceleration of the body (special platform) and by using the right aural cues (wind, water, pitching)
・Other cues like smell etc.
・Most of the cues are available nowadays but used only in other research-fields like the medical world or in the entertainment world.
・It is of the utmost importance that the cues are as close to reality as possible or a negative learning effect will be the case and a real dangerous situation arises.
・Benefits of tables of advise and polar
Fig.20: example of table of advice
Typical Hurricane Avoidance Advice
Fig. 21: example of polar diagram
POLAR RISK PLOTS
This kind of operator-training is new, and with the help of human-behaviour scientists on one side and naval-architects on the other side, training institutes can develop training-strategies and consequently training-programs for operators of ships, who have to face these kind of extreme 's and hope to survive. The workgroup started with an opinion that with this new dimension of the marine-simulator, seafarers can be prepared better for "Safe ships on clean seas", even in extreme conditions and the naval architects started with the hope to get a better insight in what can be expected from the operators in these circumstances, in order to assess the existing stability standards and to prepare ships better for the future. With these research experiments, the workgroups found out that a Full Mission Bridge Simulator as in use by the RNLNC now, can, the way she is right now , already be a useful instrument in the process of knowing more about the ship's, shiphandling, the way operators operate and the way they are fitted into the high-tech system called ship.
There are many things still left open for investigation and research: cue 's to be presented by the simulators have to be improved, mathematical models to be focused on these new demands, waves-modeling be extended; but the "Working Groups" hope that the trend is set for this extended use of marine-simulators, to know more about ships, about the human-behaviour when operating ship's and about the human being operating in extreme conditions.
A Full Mission Bridge Simulator has proven to be a use-full instrument for research on and training in human-behaviour, especially the human-behaviour when operating in a high-tech multi-culture world, even in a high-tech multi-culture world under extreme conditions. Due attention must be paid at the particulars of the simulator: the right cues of the real world, a validated mathematical ship-model and a validated wavemodel. When this is not the case wrong conclusions and wrong training programs, built on those wrong conclusions can be fatal.
Capt. Vink started in 1965 his seagoing career as a cadet at the Holland America Line and reached the rank of first officer on passenger- and cruiseliners.
Following this period he found it a valuable experience to sail as a Northsea Pilot all sorts of ships in the crowded European waters. In 1979 he went ashore and became a teacher in Nautical Sciences at Flushing Polytechnic. After obtaining a BS degree in nautical science, he fully concentrated on the introduction and use of maritime simulators in education- and training programs for cadets, experienced officers and pilots. To keep the feeling of the sea, he sailed regularly the 70m seagoing sailing vessel "Eendracht" and accompanied many times pilots on trips on all sorts of ship's with all sorts of crew's. In 1993 he transferred to the Royal Netherlands Naval College as Head of the Full Mission Bridge Simulator. He was qualified as workshop leader of the SAS/BRM Course in 1995 and introduced BRM in the Royal Netherlands Navy.
As a Head of Training he is responsible for all BRM- and Bridgesimulator training within the Royal Netherlands Navy and supervises research programs on simulator- and simulator related subjects.