3.1 Multiple Bridges
The NHR study is the first CAORF interactive bridge simulator study. Traditionally, the traffic vessel was programmed to follow a predetermined track. With the traffic ship governed by full hydrodynamic calculations and controlled by another pilot, the interactive simulator experiment posed many interesting challenges:
1. Because the two bridges are different in their equipment configurations and visual presentation, the simulator environment could be a causal factor itself.
2. A master test plan, together with different sets of scenario briefing sheets for each bridge was developed to facilitate the simulator experiment and to reduce the chance of confusion.
3. The interactive simulator environment provides both the visual presence of meeting vessels and voice communications between the two test subject pilots. The major benefit is that the meeting is more natural; the drawback is that the control of test parameters becomes more difficult. This renders the inferential statistical analysis of test data difficult.
3.2 Second Bridge Simulator
Technical expertise, combined with ingenuity and cleverness, and constant focus on the use of COTS, portability, schedule, and cost resulted in a high performance interactive second bridge simulator having all the realism and performance necessary to support the research objectives. Test Subject remarks regarding its realism and functionality proved that all the objectives and requirements had been met!
 Hammell, T.J., Hwang, W-Y., Puglisi, J.J., Stamper, D.H., Webb, D.W., "A Summary Report on Simulator Studies of Norfolk Harbor 50' Deepening", CAORF Report 20-0001-01, USMMA, Kings Point, MARSIM 2003 Conference, Kanazawa, Japan, 25th - 28th August,2003.
Joseph J. Puglisi is the Chief Information Officer at the Maritime College of State University of New York since September 2002. He is also the Campus Academic Officer of SUNY Learning Network (SLN) Asynchronous Learning Network (ALN).
Responsibilities include development and operation of academic & administrative computing, e-learning, simulation, networks, and computing systems. He works jointly with faculty to explore and encourage the effective use of technology tools in teaching and research. For the prior 12 years, he was the Director, Office of Computer Resources, USMMA, responsible for instructional systems development, including the integration of computers into curriculum. He has been involved in instructional development and simulation for over 25 years, including the technical design changes and operation of the Nuclear Ship Savannah Power Plant Simulation Training Facility.
He was also involved in the ship simulator research program with the CAORF since its inception and was its Managing Director for 10 years, responsible for major inter-agency simulation research programs, training systems design and implementation. He conceived, designed and implemented the Joint USMMA/Military Sealift Command TAO Medium Speed Diesel Simulator Program. He received Ph.D. (1996) from Cardiff University, MS (1972) from New York University, and BS (1969) from City University of New York.
John S. Case is the Acting Deputy Chief Information Officer of the Department of Information Technology (DoIT) at the United States Merchant Marine Academy. He is also the Manager of the Simulation and Research Division for the CAORF, being involved in nearly all aspects of the CAORF Visual Bridge Shiphandling Simulator and MSC Machinery Control System Simulator development over the years. He is responsible for deck and engine simulation systems engineering, distance learning technology applications & implementation, and curriculum development engineering support. He is an experienced systems professional with over 30 years of technical and managerial credentials in design and development of large scale tactical and simulation systems.
Prior to his current responsibilities at DoIT, USMMA, he was Director of the Unisys Navy Undersea Engineering and Technical Support Division and was Director of all Unisys Navy FBM Simulation worldwide. He was also Manager of all Engineering, Technical Support and Maintenance at the Computer Aided Operations Research Facility (CAORF). His experience includes system specification, hardware, software, and math model design, implementation, integration, test, and quality control.
Mr. Case received a B.S. in Marine Engineering from SUNY Maritime College and an M.S. in Electrical Engineering from Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, NY. He has participated in the SNAME H-10 Panel on Ship Maneuverability and was Secretary of the International Marine Simulator Forum (IMSF) for five years (1982-1987). Mr. Case holds a USCG Third Assistant Engineer's License, Steam & Motor, Unlimited, and a FAA Private Pilot's License.
George Webster is currently the Facilities Engineering Division Manager for the Department of Information Technology (DoIT), USMMA. He has been in the simulation world for 33 years. He is responsible for all faculties engineering design, construction simulation system(s) installation and implementation.
He is also responsible for maintenance support of all simulation systems located at Computer Aided Operations Facility (CAORF). Prior to his current responsibilities at USMMA, Mr. Webster was VP of Engineering, responsible for all simulator installation maintenance, engineering upgrades, software support, and construction of new simulation facility installations for American Maritime Officers simulation centers throughout the United States. Mr. Webster held the position of Director of Engineering and Technical Services during the privatized period of the CAORF facility. Mr. Webster was a UNISYS Senior Field Engineer at the CAORF facility during its fifteen-year phase of being the world's foremost Research facility. During the early portion of Mr. Webster's career with UNISYS / Sperry Systems Management, he worked at Naval Shipyards as a Lead Sperry Technical Engineer of Navigational Equipment on-board SSBN Submarines. Mr. Webster received a B.S. Degree in Electronic Technology New York Institute of Technology, New York, USA.
Fig.1 Location of Second Interactive Simulation Bridge
Cutaway of CAORF Building