PROPOSAL OF MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING UTILIZING ONBOARD SHIP MANEUVERING SIMULATOR
Hideo YABUKI (Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine, Japan)
Shigeo TAO (National Institute for Sea Training, Japan)
Tsuyoshi ISHIGURO (IHI Marine United Inc., Japan)
Tsuyoshi NAKANISHI (IHI Marine United Inc., Japan)
Abstract: This paper proposes a new training method utilizing an onboard ship maneuvering simulator and the results of an experiment onboard a training ship that aimed at assessing its feasibility and effectiveness. The results indicate that the new training method is effective for the mastery of fundamental ship-handling techniques such as planning, positioning, maneuvering, communication and management. It is recommended that an onboard ship maneuvering simulator be used in order to verify and practice a maneuvering plan in advance.
The number of Japanese flag ships and seafarers employed by Japanese oceangoing shipping companies continue to decrease and this leads to fewer opportunities of onboard OJT (On the Job Training) for seafarers. For seafarers on active service, Ship Maneuvering Simulator (SMS) training becomes important to refresh and to update their ship-handling skills. On the other hand, for cadets at maritime education and training institutions, development of new education and training methods to make their practical onboard training more successful and efficient is desired.
From this point of view, the authors propose a practical onboard training method for cadets that combines simulator training with onboard SMS training (onboard simulator training) and actual training on a training ship (onboard training). In order to assess the feasibility and the effect of this new training method, we performed an experiment onboard a training ship. The test ship was 5,884 G.T. training ship Seiun Maru, which belongs to National Institute for Sea Training and has equipped with a compact Type ship maneuvering simulator (IHI, SMS-EC 110). The function of the simulator is almost the same as that of a full-sized SMS. A precise hydrodynamic mathematical model of Seiun Maru and the sea area database where Seiun Maru operates during onboard training were installed on this simulator. More detailed information of the onboard SMS is described in the appendix.
During the onboard experiment, ship handling practice trials according to the same scenario were performed by the onboard simulator and by the training ship for each cadet and the effectiveness of the new training method was evaluated by the questionnaire answered by the cadets and the evaluation scores of ship-handling techniques by the experienced instructors.
This paper describes the evaluation study to apply the proposed training method to the practice of anchoring. And, based on the results of the experiment, authors point out onboard training items which proposed training method is effective and useful.
2. THE NECESSITY OF ONBOARD SMS
Use of a SMS makes it possible to provide training using the same scenario repeatedly and trainees (cadets) can master each technical element for ship-handling (elemental techniques ) one by one. On the other hand, onboard training offers a unique opportunity in which cadets can master integrated ship-handling techniques that takes into consideration the effects of such external disturbances as wind and tide, and develop an ability to make appropriate and quick decisions in ship-handling, which is indispensable for deck officers . The training method that combined classroom simulator training and onboard training was found to be effective by Murata. et al . Therefore, it seems likely that onboard training can be made more effective by the use of an onboard SMS, thus combining the merits of the simulator training and onboard training.
The advantages of the simulator training by an onboard SMS are as follows.
(1) Cadets can learn the performance of the training ship such as maneuverability and the circumstances of training area before real ship-handling training and they can learn necessary elemental techniques one by one for the preparation of ship-handling training.
(2) The supplemental training by the SMS to improve the elemental techniques of cadets is possible after real ship-handling training.
(3) Cadets can confirm their ship-handling plan prior to real ship-handling training.
(4) Instructors can utilize the onboard SMS to evaluate the ship-handling skills of cadets after real ship-handling training.
(5) It is possible to carry out simulator training and real ship-handling training successively, thus making onboard training more effective.
Therefore, it is important for the onboard SMS to have a precise mathematical model of own ship and the data base of the sea area where the ship conducts onboard training.
3. EXPERIMENT ONBOARD A TRAINING SHIP
3.1 Method of The Experiment
In the experiment, we chose anchoring practice as the training item for cadets, since it requires integration of various ship-handling skills. This training was provided in the middle of their 1 year onboard training term. The trainees were 33 cadets of two universities of mercantile marine and their experience of onboard training was about 4 months. The cadets were given the task to weigh anchor at one anchorage and put ship to anchor at another appointed anchorage. The cadets did the task in a team that consisted of 3 cadets who played the role of captain (Capt.), first officer (1/O) and third officer (3/O). The details of their bridge team work are shown in Fig. 1.
In the experiment, the cadets were divided into two groups of A and B, and the group A cadets went through the simulator training first and then the real onboard training, and the opposite was the case for the group B cadets. Group A consisted of 17 teams and group B consist of 16 teams, therefore all of the cadets experienced the role of Capt., 1/O and 3/O.
Fig. 1 Bridge team work on a practice of anchoring
The procedure and the order of the experiment were shown as below.
(1) All of the cadets had 9-hour explanatory lectures on the outline of the practice, maneuverability of the test ship, the procedure of anchoring, planning of ship-handling and the bridge team work.
(2) The cadets made their ship-handling plans and some advice and recommendations on their plans were given by instructors(Captain or Senior Professor who has the experience of Captain).
(3) Group A had the onboard simulator training using the same scenario as the real practice.
(4) Group A and B had the anchoring practice using the test ship and their performance was scored by Captain or Senior Professor.
(5) Group B went through the same simulator training as Group A.
(6) After finishing the onboard simulator training and the actual training with the test ship, the cadets in both groups responded to a questionnaire.
But, on the simulator training, ship-handling for collision avoidance and emergency situations such as the malfunction of main engine were excluded from the scenario because of the limited experience of the cadets.
3.2 Assessment of The Ship-Handling Techniques
In the anchoring practice using the test ship, instructors (Captain or Senior Professor) evaluated ship-handling techniques of cadets according to the check list in order to assess the effect of advance onboard simulator training. In the experiment, the information to identify cadet who had the onboard simulator training in advance was not provided to instructors. Each of the evaluation items was related to a small technical element of total ship maneuvering techniques (items of elemental technique) of cadets and instructors scored their grade of technique in terms of "good (3 points)", "fair (2 points)" and "poor (1 point)". The details of evaluation item are shown in Table 1. And, obtained score was totalized for each elemental technique using the method proposed by ARAI et al .
We compared ship-handling technique rank of the group A (cadets with advance onboard simulator training) with that of group B (cadets without advance onboard simulator training) for each elemental technique. The comparison result is shown in Fig.2. Vertical axis shows the mean value of ship-handling technique rank (ability rank) of each group in percentage.
In general, the figure of ability rank of group A was higher than that of group B for au elemental techniques, but the difference of figure was not so large. The evaluation results indicate that advance onboard simulator training was helpful and useful for cadets to prepare their real practice of anchoring. This result is almost the same as that of classroom simulator training evaluation conducted by KOBAYASHI et al  qualitatively. Therefore, we considered that advance onboard simulator training was effective to improve the ship-handling technique of cadets.
On the "positioning" technique of Capt.. ability rank was almost the same between group A and B. This will be due to the skill to estimate the effect of wind and tide accurately by, means of bearing observation of heading mark was not easy for cadets because they were not experienced ship-handlers.
On the evaluation result of 3/O. all ability rank of elemental technique were about 80 % or more for both groups and the difference of them between group A and B is not remarkable. We considered this reason that the duty of 3/O at the experiment was not so complicate compare with that of Capt. and 1/O.
Advance bridge team work training seems to be effective for the "communication" and "management" technique improvement.
Table 1 Details of Evaluation
||Use of marks for ship-handling. Standard of speed control.
Proper alteration of maneuvering plan according to external disturbance. Approach
to anchorage, Departure from anchorage.
|Use of heading marks to measure deviation from course line.
Use of beam marks to measure distance to anchorage. Estimation of external disturbance.
|Speed control, Course-keeping, Proper use of engine and/or
rudder. Control of laying out chain
|Helm order, Order to mates. Eng. Room and Bow. (Timing. Clear
voice. Correct term)
|Manner as commanding officer. Self-possession. Double checking
of order and action
||Identification of marks. Position fixing.(Selection of marks.
Accuracy. Time needed, Timing)
|Reporting of information (Deviation from course line. Distance
to anchorage. Bearing to anchorage. Speed OG, Course OG), Reporting.(Timing, Clear
voice, Correct term)
|Manner to assist ship-handling, Self-possession, Double checking
of order an action
||Operation of Eng. Telegraph and Echo Sounder.
|Communication of order and report, Reporting of information
(Speed, Depth), Reporting. (Timing, Clear voice, Correct term)
|Manner to assist ship-handling, Self-possession. Double checking
of order and action. Recording(Bell book)
Fig. 2 Evaluation results of onboard training