5. TO UNIVERSAL STUDIES FROM CASE STUDIES.
The issues on training and assessment for mariner have been carried out by cooperation among the institutes concerned. As a result, standards of training and assessment will be defined shortly. As mentioned in previous section, many studies on navigational condition were carried out at many institutes. In order to promote the discussion more effectively and systematically, we have to get a universal knowledge on mariner's function. However most of them are executed as a specific case study and the results can be used for the case. In this section, we propose the course that we cooperate to study the common issues on safe navigation. It will enable us to promote our studies effectively and to enhance safe navigation. Today we have to change direction of study in order to promote universal study from case studies.
5.1 Rational Evaluation
Firstly, our studies have to define the contents of evaluation. The contents have to correspond to evaluation objectives. In most of cases, there are two important factors. One is target factor that are ship maneuvering characteristics, harbor geographical condition, function of instrument and so on. The other is human factor. Most of assessment results relate to human behavior in given situation. We assess the objectives based on standard human behavior. The human behavior corresponds to the standard action of mariner having standard competency. It is necessary to understand human behavior based on standard competency. Human factor is always necessary important parts of evaluation when applying ship-handling simulator for assessment. The integration of the results of studies in each institute will make universal knowledge.
Next, we have to consider the contents of studies. Although it is needed to consider the many situations to evaluate the target objectives, limited factors are discussed in some studies. We have to take all factors concerned into account. Nevertheless, we are apt to discuss limited factors concerned mainly because restriction of time and budget. We have to discuss the scheme of study. To achieve this issue, we have to consider the contents of the study before evaluating the target objectives. When we consider the construction of target system we intend to analyze, the important factors will be appeared. Then we can decide the condition we have to discuss. It is important to select the condition in case studies in order to discuss universal studies from case studies.
5.2 Analysis on the Effect of Relating Factors
In previous section, the necessary preparation prior to experiments using simulator is discussed. In this section, analysis on the results of experiments is discussed. Generally speaking, good planning make good results through the reasonable analysis. By making plan with enough discussion on the target issues, the important factors are clarified and they are studied through experiments. On the process of analysis, the effect of relating factors should be focused on. Most of cases, the effect of target and human factor are important issues on evaluation of the system. The effects of these factors must be clarified. If we continue this approach, the results of our studies make us reach the universal results.
5.3 Integration of the Effect of Relating Factors for Development of Evaluation on Total System
The studies are carried out at many institutes separately. Each study needs a lot of time and human power as well as lot of money. However, the study results are kept in each institute or only specific part for evaluation is presented in conference. It is thought that many studies using ship-handling simulator have been carried out. If we integrate the results from most of institutes and arrange them systematically, we will find more universal knowledge and universal results. In near future, we can evaluate the total system containing all of items concerned and human factor based on the integration of separate knowledge.
MET using simulator is carrying out in major institutes in the world today. The assessment on navigational condition is also executed in many institutes. In this paper, following issues are pointed out based on the present simulator applications.
(1) Function of simulator is important when we apply it for training or assessment of navigational condition.
(2) Necessary function of simulator should be clarified based on the objectives of application.
(3) In order to define the necessary function of simulator, the objectives of application have to be analyzed.
(4) Human factor is very important issues when we apply a simulator for assessment on navigational condition.
(5) Author proposed the cooperated study to enhance the study on mariner's function.
 Drown J.D. "A Categorization and Evaluation System for Computer Based Ship Operation Training Simulators", MARSIM93, pp103-114, Canada, 1993
 Cross S. "Classification of Maritime Simulators, the Final Attempt Introducing DNV's New Standard", MARSIM2000, pp1-10, USA, 2000
 Sorensen P.K. "Feature Important for Simulator Training with Emphasis on the Own Ship Mathematical Model", MARSIM2000, pp181-196, USA,2000
 Anderson S.P. "Ship Simulation Training at the USCG Academy", CAORF2000, ppA2, USA, 2000
 Muirhead P. " Harmonization of European MET via EC Research Project: can Technology Help Achieve a More Common Approach", Workshop in MARSIM'03, Japan, 2003
 Endo M. "The Necessary Techniques for Safe Navigation and the Assessment of the Competency" , Workshop in MARSIM'03, Japan, 2003
 Kobayashi H. "New Standards of MET using Ship-handling Simulator", MARSIM2000, pp159-172, USA, 2000
 Schraagen J.M. "What Information do River Pilots Use", MARSIM93, pp509-518, Canada, 1993
 Yoshimura Y. "Criteria for Yaw-checking and Course-keeping Abilities in IMO's Interim Standards for Ship Maneuverabulity", MARSIM2000 pp389-400, USA, 2000
 Nishimura T. "The Estimation of Ship Maneuverability for controlling Position of Unstable Ships" MARSIM'03, Japan, 2003
 Puglish J.J. "Application of CAORF Simulator to Optimize Channel Design and Maintenance", CAORF2000, P4, USA, 2000
 Kobayashi H. "Technical Development for Safe Navigation", MARIENV, pp953-960, Japan, 1995
 Kobayashi H. "Simulator Study on the Relation between the Handling Ability and the Information", MARSIM93, pp305-312, Canada, 1993
Dr. Hiroaki Kobayashi is a professor of Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine. He is a chairman of International Marine Simulator Forum. He is the honorary chairman of Ship Handling Simulator Committee in Japan Institute of Navigation and a member of steering committee in International Navigation Simulator Lectures Conference in IMLA.
His major fields are man-machine system analysis in ship handling, seamen's training, safety evaluation of ship maneuvering and ship maneuverability.
He is chairman of Committee on the seamen's training using Ship Handling Simulator organized by Japan captain association.
He holds a Bachelor's degree (Navigation) from Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine, a Bachelor's degree (Engineering) from Osaka University, a Master's degree (Engineering) from Hiroshima University and a Doctoral degree in Engineering from University of Tokyo.