Hiroaki KOBAYASHI (Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine, Japan)
Abstract: IMO recommend effective MET using marine simulator. Training institutes have been carrying out training before IMO recommendation. Marine simulator is also applied for the assessment on navigational condition. The application of simulator has been corresponding to the requirement of maritime society. To promote more effective application of simulator, the relation between the application objectives and function in simulator is discussed in this paper. In the application of simulator, human factor is important issue. The issues on human factor are also discussed for promoting the study applying marine simulator.
When International Marine Simulator Forum was established 1975, starting member were 6 institutes. Now, member of IMSF are over 80 institutes, 35 countries. Many kinds of application of simulator are carried out. Those are training, assessment of function relating to ship handling and so on. There are several kinds of marine simulator, ship handling simulator, engine room simulator, cargo-handling simulator, GMDSS simulator and so on. The relation between simulator functions and objectives of applications are discussed in this paper. Though important issues of simulator application are common to most of simulators, ship-handling simulator is focused on in some parts of this paper because ship handling simulator equips the most number of function in marine simulators. Objectives of this paper are to point out following items,
(1) Peculiarity of simulator as a tool of studies and training
(2) The relation between simulator application and object of usage
(3) The kinds of usage of simulator and discussion on the meanings
(4) Discussion on the necessity of universal studies in the fields of assessment on navigational condition
The meaning of using simulator will be clarified from above discussion.
2. PECULIARITY OF SIMULATOR AS A TOOL OF STUDIES AND TRAINING
2.1 Function of Simulator
Firstly, we consider the difference between computer game machine and simulator. From this comparison, the necessity function of simulator is clarified. Game machines are developed to make human pleasing. In this case, the reappearance of real situation is not so important. It focuses on the amusement. On the other hand, simulator has to reappear one part or necessary parts of real situation for achieving the objectives of simulator application. Therefore, the reappeared functions are important to apply the simulator. The difference of simulator to computer game machine is the importance of reappearance of real world. In this section, the reappeared function in simulator is discussed. 
2.1.1 Reappearance of operational condition
The definitions of the kind of simulator are shown by several ways. In this paper, we would like to consider the meaning of simulator application and the validity from viewpoint of simulator's function of reappearance. The characteristics of simulator not game machine are considered. The difference of simulator to game machine is clarified by discussing their functions.
Standard specifications of ship-handling simulator are discussed from point of functional view. Following factors are reappeared in common ship-handling simulator.
(1) Maneuvering characteristics of own ship
(2) Handling instruments
(3) Navigational environment
(4) Navigation instrument
When we analyze these items from point of functional view, each item is rearranged as the kinds of information to supply mariner. The appearance of the characteristics of maneuverability is to indicate the information of exact ship's motion. Those are heading angle, rate of turn, longitudinal speed and lateral speed and etc.. The reappearance of navigational environment is to show the information of the relation between own ship position and geographical condition. Reappeared traffic condition around own ship also shows the information on the interaction among them. These information are reappeared by visual information and instrumental information.
Photo.1-1 Full mission simulator
Photo.1-2 Full mission simulator
Photo.2 Radar / ARPA simulator
Photo.3 Engine simulator
Photo.4 Cargo handling simulator
Photo.5 GMDSS simulator
When we discuss the contents of information, we have to evaluate not only quantity, but also quality. If necessary information to reappear the real situation is indicated incorrectly, the results of the simulation cannot be applied to real situation. So we have to evaluate simulator based on the simulated maneuverability, visual information, and instrumental information and so on by comparing to real them.