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Recent Advances in Marine Science and Technology, 2002

 事業名 海洋科学技術に関する太平洋会議の開催
 団体名 国際海洋科学技術協会 注目度注目度5


EVALUATION OF WORKING ENVIRONMENTS IN FISHING PORTS BY USING OVAKO WORKING POSTURES ANALYSIS SYSTEM
 
Mio Anai1, Heon Chol Park1, Takeo Kondo1, Masaharu Kimoto1, Kazukiyo Yamamoto1, Kimiyasu Saeki2, Sadamitsu Akeda2 and Nobuo Takaki2
 
1Nihon University
Funabashi, Chiba, JAPAN
k04004@ocean.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp
 
2National Fisheries Research Institute Fisheries Research Agency
Kashima, Ibaraki, JAPAN
kysaeki@fra.affrc.go.jp
 
ABSTRACT
 
An alternative to relieving the burden of both skilled fishers and beginners is considered clarifying the cause of the burden in the fishery and removing it. Among methodologies, this paper describes the characteristics of on four fishing practices and introduces OWAS-Ovako Working Posture Analysis System in order to clarify unproven working postures and physical burdens on a landside of the fishing ports. The analysis shows that most physical burdens are concentrated on the back and legs and identifies required action categories for working postures, which should be improved. The burdens may result from the vertical distance between the pier and the fishing boat, the weight of freights, and long working hours. Also, questionnaire and interview researches support the results.
 
INTRODUCTION
 
Since the 1990s, the fishery industry in Japan has faced the decrease of fishermen because of the advent of the aged society, the lack of new young fishermen, and the dramatic social and industrial change. Under these situations, many older fishermen have to continue working until they find a follower, and women should fill in the lack of the workforce. Among many difficulties of working environments in a fishing port, physical burdens seem to cause a possible accident and increase the physical fatigue. Unfortunately, the research on these parts had not been done until those problems came to reality because the concept of working environment and efficiency had been discussed in the industry, which is dependent on the natural environment. Considering these circumstances, a paper (Yamashita, 2000) showed the methodological approach in order to illustrate the characteristics of the fishing on offshore and measure the burden of each work. However, the paper did not cover the several types of fishing practices on a landside of fishing ports where the types of works are complicated and workers have diverse physical abilities. Therefore, this paper focuses on several types of fishing practices on the landside of fishing ports.
 
PURPOSES
 
The purpose of this paper is to describe the characteristics of four types of fishing practices: trawl fishery, purse seine fishery, fixed gill net fishery, and shell dredge net fishery, and mainly clarify the undesirable working postures on the landside of fishing ports and action categories that indicate the degree of the requirement for measured the postures. Also, it focuses on the causes of physical burdens and the facilities that should be improved
 
METHODOLOGIES
 
Five fishing ports in Chiba prefecture (Fig.1) are selected as research sites, considering fishing activities during the summer season, the scale of the port facilities and the fishing practice. Table 1 shows the outline of the research. Fifty copies of questionnaire are distributed to each fishing port and are collected by post. Also video recordings as well as interviews are conducted at four among five fishing ports except for Katsuura, during working hours on each fishing practice. "Class" in Table 1 shows size of fishing port. The largest port among the fishing ports in Japan is Special Class Third. Class Four is an emergency fishing port.
 
(Enlarge: 39KB)
Figure 1. Survey sites
 
EXPLANATION OF OVAKO WORKING POSTURE ANALYSIS
 
The working postures of fishermen are measured by using OWAS, Ovako Working Posture Analysis System, which can determine the level of burden posed by a specific posture at a given time and the degree of required correction. The OWAS method is based on a simple and systematic classification of work postures combined with observations of work tasks. Working together, specialists and workers can apply the method to find measures for reducing the harmful load caused by poor work postures. OWAS assesses the posture of a worker in terms of the back, arms, legs and burden (Louhevaara, 1992). A posture can be classified into one of four action categories (AC) depending on the level of burden and the degree of required correction. The posture evaluation based on the AC score, shown in Table 2. The particular posture for a specific type of work can be assessed based on the frequency of the AC scores for the following two aspects. One is "physical burden" from the viewpoint of the entire work postures. The other is "burden on a particular part of the body", such as the back, arms or legs, from the viewpoint of the frequency of a specific posture (bending the back or raising (an) arm(s), etc.). The result of the former identifies the degree of required correction and work processes in need of correction while the result of the latter identifies the specific body part subject to a particularly heavy burden in a specific type of work. The classification of working postures on body parts is shown in Table 3. In the case of work posture combination is determined (Fig.2). The crossing point shows the AC score.
 
Table 1. Outline of the research
Study Site / Classification of port / Fishing practice Date of Survey (Year 2001) Present Condition
Wada / Class 2 / Fixed gill netting 14th September Number of fishermen: 98, Number of fishing boats: 74 Average age of fishermen: 65.5 Landing fishery product: 2,042 tons
Chikura / Class 3 / Fixed gill netting 18th September Number of fishermen: 73, Number of fishing boats: 50 Average age of fishermen: 64 Landing fishery product: 7,876 tons
Katsuura / Class 3 / 19th September Number of fishermen: 71, Number of fishing boats: 56 Average age of fishermen: 57.4 Landing fishery product: 21,280 tons
Choshi / Special Class 3 / Trawling, Round haul netting (single boats) 25th, 26th and 27th September Number of fishermen: 651, Number of fishing boats: 50 Average age of fishermen: 64 Landing fishery product: 252,177 tons
Katakai / Class 4 / Shell dredge netting, Round haul netting (two boat) 27th and 28th September Number of fishermen: 74, Number of fishing boats: 41; Average age of fishermen: 53 Landing fishery product: 18,041 tons
     
Methods Research Contents
Questionnaire Types of work, evaluation of facilities, physical burdens and causes
Interview Problems associated with facilities, details of physical burden
Video recording/ photography Physical burden inflicted on working (by OWAS and AC method)
 
Table 2. Evaluation of working posture based on AC score
AC1 No action required.
AC2 Corrective measures should be taken in the near future.
AC3 Corrective measures should be taken as soon as possible.
AC4 Corrective measures should be taken immediately.
 
Table 3. Classification of working postures
Back 1. Straight
2. Bent
3. Twisted
4. Bent and twisted
Arms 1. Both arms below the shoulder
2. One arm above the shoulder
3. Both arms above the shoulder
Legs 1. Sitting
2. Standing on both legs
3. Standing on one leg
4. Standing with both knees bent
5. Standing with one knee bent
6. Kneeling
7. Walking
Load 1. W ≤ 10 kg
2. 10kg < W ≤ 20 kg
3. W > 20 kg
 
back arm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 leg
123 123 123 123 123 123 123 weight
1 1 111 111 111 222 222 111 111
2 111 111 111 222 222 111 111
3 111 111 111 223 223 111 112
2 1 223 223 223 333 333 222 233
2 223 223 233 344 344 334 234
3 334 223 333 344 444 444 234
3 1 111 111 112 333 444 111 111
2 223 111 112 444 444 333 111
3 223 111 233 444 444 444 111
4 1 233 223 223 444 444 444 234
2 334 234 334 444 444 444 234
3 444 234 334 444 444 444 234
Figure 2. Action categories for work posture







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